The expansion of Indo-Europeans in Y-chromosome haplogroups

I have compiled for two years now the reported Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroups of ancient DNA samples published, including also SNPs from analysis of the BAM files by hobbyists.

Y-DNA timeline

Here is a video with a timeline of the evolution of Indo-European speakers, according to what is known today about reconstructed languages, prehistoric cultures and ancient DNA:

NOTE. The video is best viewed in HD 1080p (1920×1080) with a display that allows for this or greater video quality, and a screen big enough to see haplogroup symbols, i.e. tablet or greater. The YouTube link is here. The Facebook link is here.

yamnaya-expansion

Based on the results of the past 5 years or so, which have been confirming this combined picture every single time, I doubt there will be much need to change it in any radical way, as only minor details remain to be clarified.

Y-DNA and mtDNA maps

I wanted to publish a GIS tool of my own for everyone to have an updated reference of the All Ancient DNA dataset I use for my books.

The most complex tools available consume too many resources when used online in a client-server model, so I have to keep that to myself, but there are some ways to publish low quality outputs with QGIS.

The OpenLayers files below include the possibility to zoom some levels to be able to see more samples, and also to check each one for more information on their ID, attributed culture and label, archaeological site, source paper, subclade (and people responsible for SNP inferences if any), etc.

y-dna-haplogroups

Some usage notes:

  • Files are large (ca. 15-20 and up to 50 Mb), so they still take some time to load.
  • For the meaning of symbols and colors (for Y-DNA haplogroups), if there is any doubt, check the video above and the All Ancient DNA dataset.
  • Pop-ups with sample information will work on desktop browsers by clicking on them, apparently not on smartphone and related tactile OS.
    • I added files with pop-ups on hover, so that it now works (to some extent) on tactile OS.
  • The search tool can look for specific samples according to their official ID, and works by highlighting the symbol of the selected individual (turning it into a bright blue dot), and leading the layer view to the location, but it seems to work best only with some browser and OS settings – in other browsers, you need to zoom out to see where the dot is located. The specific sample with its information could paradoxically disappear in search mode, so you might need to reload and look again for the same site that was highlighted.
  • Latitude and longitude values have been randomly modified to avoid samples overcrowding specific sites, so they are not the original ones.

Y-DNA OpenLayers Maps

These are the different versions available:

haplogroup-map-physical

General (12 March 2020):

openlayers-logoWith blank background rivers and lakes (38.7 Mb).

openlayers-logoWith physical background and rivers (46.3 Mb).

Divided by ages according to cultural maps (12 March 2020):

1. openlayers-logoOut of Africa.

2. openlayers-logoUpper Palaeolithic.

3. openlayers-logoEpipalaeolithic.

4. openlayers-logoEarly Mesolithic.

5. openlayers-logoLate Mesolithic.

6. openlayers-logoNeolithic and hunter-gatherer pottery.

7. openlayers-logoEarly Eneolithic.

8. openlayers-logoLate Eneolithic.

chalcolithic-early-y-dna-map

9. openlayers-logoEarly Chalcolithic.

11. openlayers-logoLate Chalcolithic.

12. openlayers-logoEarly Bronze Age.

13. openlayers-logoMiddle Bronze Age.

14. openlayers-logoLate Bronze Age.

15. openlayers-logoEarly Iron Age.

16. openlayers-logoLate Iron Age.

17. openlayers-logoAntiquity.

18. openlayers-logoMiddle Ages.

mtDNA OpenLayers Maps

There are different versions:

NOTE. Because there are too many samples at the starting view, depending on the file you should zoom some levels to start seeing symbols.

mtdna-haplogroups

General (Feb 2020):

openlayers-logoWith blank background, rivers and lakes (41.3 Mb).

openlayers-logoWith physical background and rivers (49.1 Mb).

Divided by ages according to cultural maps (Feb 2020):

3. openlayers-logoEpipalaeolithic.

4. openlayers-logoEarly Mesolithic.

5. openlayers-logoLate Mesolithic.

6. openlayers-logoNeolithic and hunter-gatherer pottery.

7. openlayers-logoEarly Eneolithic.

8. openlayers-logoLate Eneolithic.

9. openlayers-logoEarly Chalcolithic.

11. openlayers-logoLate Chalcolithic.

12. openlayers-logoEarly Bronze Age.

13. openlayers-logoMiddle Bronze Age.

14. openlayers-logoLate Bronze Age.

15. openlayers-logoEarly Iron Age.

16. openlayers-logoLate Iron Age.

17. openlayers-logoAntiquity.

18. openlayers-logoMiddle Ages.

Smartphone / Tactile OS (Dec 2019):

openlayers-logoSymbols with labels.

openlayers-logoSymbols without labels.

Static Maps

The following maps offer a timeline of Y-DNA and mtDNA evolution, divided into static periods corresponding to the Prehistoric Atlas.

chalcolithic-early-europe-y-dna
Y-DNA haplogroups in Europe during the Early Chalcolithic. See full map.

Y-DNA + culture maps

The following files use the YTree or otherwise more comprehensive nomenclature than YFull. Symbols have a similar value as those from the GIS tools.

mtDNA + culture maps

Colours have been assigned randomly to each macro-haplogroup.

See also

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Chetan
Chetan

I guess we are back again to an impasse -( no dramatic revelations in waiting. No Hungarian Yamnaya, no Khvalynsk-Steppe_Eneolithic and no Russian forest steppe..

Carlos Quiles

It seems like all these three you mention are expected to be published, the question is when. I think there is much less of an impasse than in the 2000s, though. Thanks to population genomics we can discard a great deal of cultural diffusion and demic diffusion models. If you mean as impasse the lack of general agreement based on the lack of these specific samples, I bet there won’t be any, even after them; there is an impasse waiting at every corner, because this matter is contaminated with something completely unrelated to linguistic prehistory: 1) West Yamnaya and Yamnaya… Read more »

Chetan
Chetan

BTW, did you watch this video ft. David Anthony? A good summary of the current state of horse domestication problem.

https://youtu.be/JA02rgd9qok

Carlos Quiles

An open access summary of the current research just published, Ancient Genomes Reveal Unexpected Horse Domestication and Management Dynamics, by Ludovic Orlando in BioEssays (2019).

Carlos Quiles

Yes, some still images are included in the video of IE/Y-DNA evolution above.

It would be nice to find if, when, and how much steppe horse lineages spread into Anatolia stemming from Khvalynsk chieftains. Not that it solves any question of horseback riding or Anatolian expansion, but (lacking ancient human DNA) it might give more weight to an early vs. a late arrival of Proto-Anatolians, who without a doubt must have dealt with horses uninterruptedly since their split.

Anthony seems to prefer a late migration from the Balkans, related to the push of the Yamnaya, rather than an early crossing.

Carlos Quiles

I thought you’d be interested in this new SNP inference for Ukraine Mesolithic sample from Dereivka (7040-6703 calBCE), reported as of hg. R1a in Mathieson et al. (2018):
https://www.yfull.com/tree/R-YP4141/

It seems like Underhill et al. (2015) wasn’t that wrong in assessing an origin of R1a close to the Caucasus. They just failed to see the multiple potential Y-DNA replacements that must had happened in the steppes, hence an origin of their expansions rather to the north of it, not to the south…

Chetan
Chetan

Very interesting. Would be nice if someone also checked the cis-Baikal sample(s) reported previously as R1a (M417?). If the data was available, that is.

Carlos Quiles

Based on the emergence of all subclades in Eastern Europe, I don’t see a potential eastward migration justifying the reported R1a-M198 in the area before the Seima Turbino (Abashevo-related) expansion.

At first I thought it was a question of contamination by handlers, given that it’s a Russian team, but maybe it’s a problem with radiocarbon date. Same with the N-TAT sample from Zhizhitsa by Chekunova.

None of these lineages have been confirmed in the areas until much later.

okay okay
okay okay

ps://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2020/01/15/2020.01.14.905505.full.pdf The origin of domestication genes in goats From Old East Slavic козьлъ (kozĭlŭ), from Proto-Slavic *kozьlъ (“he-goat”), from *koza (“she-goat”) +‎ *-ьlъ Sanskrit-अजा f.ajA goat Since wolves are natural predators- *wĺ̥kʷos m (non-ablauting) wolf Inflection Thematic singular nominative *wĺ̥kʷos genitive *wĺ̥kʷosyo Descendants Albanian: *ulka- Albanian: ujk Anatolian: Hittite: ????? (wa-al-ku-wa-aš) Luwian: ??? (walwa/i, “lion”) (only attested in personal names) Lydian: [script needed] (walw-el(i), “lion-like, pertaining to lions”) Balto-Slavic: *wilkás (see there for further descendants) Celtic: *ulkos (see there for further descendants) Germanic: *wulfaz (see there for further descendants) Hellenic: *lúkos Ancient Greek: λύκος (lúkos) Greek: λύκος (lýkos) Indo-Iranian: *wŕ̥kas… Read more »

Δημήτριος
Δημήτριος

Hello Carlos,

Can you please provide some more information on that Mycenaean R-Z2103 sample visible on the Y-DNA map? Is it certain?

Furthermore, i see you haven’t updated both the Y-DNA and mtDNA maps to also include two Vučedol male samples, that were published in the “The Genomic History of Southeastern Europe” (2018) paper. Namely one R-Z2103 and one G2a2a1a2a. It also had one female sample from the same culture. Their respective sample IDs are I3499, I2792, and I4175.

Thanks in advance for your time.

Sincerely,
Demetrios

Carlos Quiles

It seems we live in an age where geneticists like to share rumours per email with hobbyists instead of giving public talks or publishing papers. In fact, they seem to be more concerned lately about sharing information from those talks through Twitter, but not so much about “leaks”…So nothing unpublished is certain, because information potentially goes through the biased “sieve” of those hobbyists. But there are two different sources (labs) of R1b-L23 among Mycenaeans, one of them possibly not Z2103, so I’d say only West Yamnaya can be linked to that expansion… The rumours are here. Those samples you mention… Read more »

Δημήτριος
Δημήτριος

Thanks for your reply Carlos. By the way, i didn’t receive an alert for your post. In any case, let’s hope those samples get published or mentioned in a talk sometime soon in order to get validated. I would very much hope for these to be valid as well, since they would corroborate my model. In short, Graeco-Phrygians to have originated from Catacomb (succeeding culture of Yamnaya in the west), then migrating to the northwestern Balkans (Vučedol culture), before ending up with distinct successive migrations (both maritime and land) in the south, beginning from 2400-2200 BCE (i base these dates… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

1. Yeah, the Disqus system has some erratic behaviour in notifications, edition, JavaScript, etc. (apart from annoying ads), but I think it’s still much better than WP’s native system. 2. About Catacomb, I think it’s the interrogation mark on Palaeo-Balkan languages. As you can see, I leave it without labels in the tentative map of languages. It’s especially fitting for Armenian and its necessarily close connection with Iranian, and it could be explained by the “Steppe-like” ancestry of Caucasus MLBA and some isolated R1b samples. Nevertheless, I think the Srubnaya-related sample I2163 from Merichleri and later contacts perfectly explains this… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

@Δημήτριος I see you deleted your next comment, but I think it was quite interesting.

Thank you for the hint of Amvrakia instead of Amurakia, that clarifies things a lot. I’ve changed it now to Ancient Ambracia.

Demetrios Alexander
Demetrios Alexander

I didn’t delete it. If you still have it as a copy from the alert you might have received i would appreciate if you published it again. I remember coming back an hour or so after i wrote that last comment of mine, and both your last and my last comment were deleted. I thought you had deleted them because it seemed we were expanding on all different kind of subjects, even though this page is mostly about ancient Y-DNA, lol. Maybe it didn’t get published because during that time you seem to have been changing the format of the… Read more »

Δημήτριος
Δημήτριος

Thanks a lot Carlos, truly i appreciate it. I also see you moved the images where they should have been, while previously they were all at the bottom or because in some i had placed parentheses the links were broken or not visible as links. Only some corrections if you can edit the comment. Can you paste the link of the bloggers’ article, where it currently says, “His division is mainly due to the centum/satem model and its related dates. Here is the whole article of his,”. Second, where it currently says, “The proto-Greek region per him would be this… Read more »

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