PCA and Admixture of Eurasian populations

The PCA is obtained using Reich Lab’s Eigensoft SmartPCA together with its curated dataset, the Allen Ancient DNA Resource (currently v. 44.3 – Jan 20, 2021), but also including more recently published datasets. They correspond roughly to the samples which have ADMIXTURE values in the Ancient DNA Dataset. Some graphs are modified to illustrate the relation between populations and their movements. A detailed description of these ancestral populations and potential expansions with archaeological cultures associated with certain languages will be found in the books.

Please report any errors by writing an email to [email protected], attaching the necessary information for reference – unless it is a clear mistake -, and I will correct them as soon as possible.

You can reuse and modify the images posted here as you see fit, but please cite the corresponding book and – especially if you use these high-quality images – this website (indo-european.eu) as the source. Thank you.

PCA of Northern Eurasian populations

#UPDATED files (11 March 2021):

PCA general

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of ancient Eurasian samples (PDF).

>csv-text-logo3D PC1-PC2-PC3 of ancient* Eurasian samples (HTML).
*Medieval and Early Modern samples in gray, like modern samples.

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of ancient Eurasian samples (PDF).

>>>pdf-logoPC1-PC4 of ancient Eurasian samples (PDF).

>>>csv-text-logo4D PC1-PC2-PC3-PC4** of ancient Eurasian samples (HTML).
**PC4 as color divided into 10 discrete levels, from red-orange (greater values) to purple-fuchsia (smaller).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of ancient and modern Eurasian samples (PDF).

>csv-text-logo3D PC1-PC2-PC3 of ancient and modern Eurasian samples (HTML).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of ancient and modern Eurasian samples (PDF).

>>>pdf-logoPC1-PC4 of ancient and modern Eurasian samples (PDF).

PCA by period (individual)

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Palaeolithic to Chalcolithic samples (PDF).

>pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Palaeolithic to Chalcolithic samples, labelled (PDF).

>>csv-text-logo3D PC1-PC2-PC3 of Palaeolithic to Chalcolithic samples (HTML).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of Palaeolithic to Chalcolithic samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Yamnaya and coeval samples (PDF).

>pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Yamnaya and coeval samples, labelled (PDF).

>>csv-text-logo3D PC1-PC2-PC3 of Yamnaya and coeval samples (HTML).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of Yamnaya and coeval samples, labelled (PDF).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Corded Ware and coeval samples (PDF).

>pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Corded Ware and coeval samples, labelled (PDF).

>>csv-text-logo3D PC1-PC2-PC3 of Corded Ware and coeval samples (HTML).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of Corded Ware and coeval samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Bell Beaker and coeval samples (PDF).

>pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Bell Beaker and coeval samples samples, labelled (PDF).

>>csv-text-logo3D PC1-PC2-PC3 of Bell Beaker and coeval samples (HTML).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of Bell Beaker and coeval samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Steppe MLBA, South and East Asia BA samples (PDF).

>pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Steppe MLBA, South and East Asia BA samples, labelled (PDF).

>>csv-text-logo3D PC1-PC2-PC3 of Steppe MLBA, South and East Asia BA samples (HTML).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of Steppe MLBA, South and East Asia BA samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of European Bronze Age samples (PDF).

>pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of European Bronze Age samples, labelled (PDF).

>>csv-text-logo3D PC1-PC2-PC3 of European Bronze Age samples (HTML).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of European Bronze Age samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Iron Age samples (PDF).

>pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Iron Age samples, labelled (PDF).

>>csv-text-logo3D PC1-PC2-PC3 of Iron Age samples (HTML).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of Iron Age samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of medieval & Early Modern samples (PDF).

>pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of medieval & Early Modern samples, labelled (PDF).

>>csv-text-logo3D PC1-PC2-PC3 of medieval & Early Modern samples (HTML).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of medieval & Early Modern samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of modern samples (PDF).

>pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of modern samples, with labels (PDF).

>>csv-text-logo3D PC1-PC2-PC3 of modern samples (HTML).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of modern samples (PDF).

PCA by period (combinations)

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of N & CA + Yamnaya samples (PDF).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of N & CA + Yamnaya samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of N & CA + Yamnaya + CWC samples (PDF).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of N & CA + Yamnaya + CWC samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Yamnaya + BBC samples (PDF).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of Yamnaya + BBC samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Yamnaya + CWC + BBC samples (PDF).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of Yamnaya + CWC + BBC samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of CWC + BBC + EEBA samples (PDF).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of CWC + BBC + EEBA samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Steppe MLBA, SA, EA + EEBA + IA samples (PDF).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of Steppe MLBA, SA, EA + EEBA + IA samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPC1-PC2 of Steppe MLBA, SA, EA + EEBA + IA + MA & EM samples (PDF).

>>pdf-logoPC1-PC3 of Steppe MLBA, SA, EA + EEBA + IA + MA & EM samples (PDF).


2020 files:

Files with less modern Asian populations (23 April 2020):

pdf-logoPCA of ancient Eurasian samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of ancient and modern Eurasian samples (PDF).

csv-text-logoPCA 3D of ancient and modern Eurasian samples (HTML).

pdf-logoPCA of ancient samples from Palaeolithic to Chalcolithic (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of Palaeolithic to Chalcolithic samples, labelled (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of ancient samples including Yamnaya (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of Yamnaya and coeval samples, labelled (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of ancient samples including Corded Ware (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of Corded Ware and coeval samples, labelled (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of ancient samples including Bell Beakers (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of Bell Beaker and coeval samples samples, labelled (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of ancient samples including Steppe MLBA and South Asia (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of Steppe MLBA and South Asia, labelled (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of ancient samples including European Bronze Age (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of European Bronze Age samples, labelled (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of ancient samples including Iron Age and Middle Age samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of Iron Age and Middle Age samples, labelled (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of modern samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of modern samples, with labels (PDF).

2019 files:

These are images from A Feat of Crowds, the fourth volume of the series A Song of Sheep and Horses. This fourth volume contains supplementary materials for the other main three volumes: the first two (A Game of Clans & A Clash of Chiefs), on prehistoric migrations associated with Eurasian languages; and the third one (A Song of Sheep and Horses), on Indo-Uralic languages.

pdf-logoPCA of ancient and modern Eurasian samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of ancient and modern Eurasian samples, labelled (PDF).

csv-text-logoPCA 3D of ancient and modern Eurasian samples (HTML).

pdf-logoPCA of ancient and modern European samples (PDF).

pdf-logoPCA of ancient and modern European samples, labelled (PDF).

csv-text-logoPCA 3D of ancient and modern European samples (HTML).

NOTE. PC1 and PC2 have been inverted in European samples to fit the position of samples in the PCA of Eurasian individuals, which corresponds more naturally to the east–west and north–south distribution of populations.

PCA of ancient and modern Eurasian samples. Mesolithic and Neolithic cultures referenced.
PCA of ancient and modern Eurasian samples. Early Eneolithic admixture events in the steppe drawn.
PCA of ancient and modern Eurasian samples. Suvorovo-related admixture events in the Balkans drawn.
PCA of ancient and modern Eurasian samples. North Pontic admixture events drawn.
PCA of ancient and modern Eurasian samples. Late Repin admixture events drawn.
PCA of ancient and modern Eurasian samples. Corded Ware admixture events drawn.
PCA of ancient and modern Eurasian samples. Yamna Hungary – Early East Bell Beaker admixture event drawn.
Section of PCA of ancient and modern European samples. Yamna-related admixture events shown, including Bell Beakers, Balkan BA, Mycenaeans, and Armenia BA samples. Also marked are Assyrian and Old Hittite samples.
bronze-age-europe
Section of PCA of ancient and modern European samples. Czech BA, Únětice, Poland BA, Late Trzciniec, and Baltic BA samples (over semi-transparent East Bell Beakers).
PCA of ancient and modern European samples, including Weltzin individuals of the Tollense battlefield.
PCA of ancient and modern European samples, including Iron Age and medieval groups.
PCA of ancient and modern Eurasian samples. Poltavka-, Abashevo- and Sintashta–Potapovka-related samples have been labelled, including Andronovo and Andronovo East, Srubna, and Scythians and Sarmatians. South Asian and Turan samples also marked.
PCA of ancient and modern Eurasian samples. Bronze Age and Iron Age Fennoscandian populations and Saami admixture drawn.
PCA of ancient and modern Eurasian samples. Ancient Palaeo-Laplandic, Palaeosiberian, and Altai clines drawn, with modern populations labelled.
PCA of modern Uralic-speaking peoples with Palaeo-Laplandic and Palaeosiberian clines drawn. Image modified from Tambets, Yunusbayev, et al. (2018).
PCA of modern Uralic-speaking peoples with Palaeo-Laplandic and Palaeosiberian clines drawn, including Ugric and Samoyedic clines within the Palaeosiberian one. Image modified from Tambets, Yunusbayev, et al. (2018)
Unsupervised ADMIXTURE results for K=6, corresponding to the ADMIXTURE results shown in stacked charts in supplementary maps.