Indo-European Demic Diffusion – The expansion of Proto-Indo-Europeans potentially explained as the expansion of R1b subclades

I published an essay (or “dissertation”) some weeks ago, about what seems to me one of the most likely models of expansion of Indo-European-speaking peoples, based on Y-DNA haplogroups. Recently J.P. Mallory had proposed* (although he was not the first) that North-West Indo-European (the ancestor of Italo-Celtic and Germanic, and Balto-Slavic**) expanded with the Bell Beaker culture, a hypothesis that is supported by the most recent radiocarbon data (and subsequent proposal of an eastern origin of the pre-Bell Beaker culture, linked to the Yamna expansion, by Volker and Heyd). As I outline in the paper, ancient DNA samples and genetic data from modern populations seem to support this new model.

https://www.academia.edu/31707046/Indo-European_demic_diffusion_model

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314216807_Indo-European_demic_diffusion_model

(highly detailed diachronic maps with Indo-European cultures, peoples, languages, and Y-DNA samples)

The still most prevalent model followed by archaeologists, based on Gimbutas’ theory, links the Corded Ware culture expansion to an expansion of the Yamna culture. Gimbutas linked the expansion of Bell Beaker to the expansion of certain Indo-European dialects through Vucedol, and Corded Ware was associated with the expansion of Germano-Balto-Slavic. Even though linguistics has changed its mainstream view of the dialectalization of Late Indo-European in the past half century, the archaeological community (those who supported the steppe expansion, at least) has remained strongly linked to Gimbutas, and more recently David Anthony has supported a similar model (with a phylogenetic model of Proto-Indo-European dialects by Don Ringe), by explaining a dual expansion into Corded Ware by Pre-Germanic (through a mixed Old European / IE Usatovo culture) and Pre-Balto-Slavic (through the Middle Dnieper culture), while eastern Bell Beakers expanded with Italo-Celtic dialects. While a strong cultural connection between Yamna and Corded Ware is currently undeniable, and admixture analyses show a connection between steppe and both Bell Beaker and Corded Ware samples, the actual relationship is today far less clear than it was 10 years ago (when we would simply connect Yamna with a R1a-dominated Corded Ware), and far more ancient samples from the steppe, steppe-forest, and forest zone are needed to extract any strong conclusions.

During this time I have received some comments on the paper, and have discovered some interesting sources for more information, like BioRxiv (for the newest pre-print papers on Genetics), and Academia.edu (for papers on Archaeology), both of which I can’t hardly recommend enough for anyone interested in these topics. From what I have experienced, Linguistics – which seemed to me a quite closed, strongly conservative community, due to my proposal of speaking a reconstructed Proto-Indo-European dialect as a common language today – has been more open with my model than some archaeological/genetic tandems, and linguists have shown a clearer grasp of all anthropological disciplines involved in Indo-European studies than others… My model remains a theory that I expect to develop further with more details and more genetic data, as they are published.

There are some interesting upcoming samples (mainly from Bell Beaker) by the Reich Lab – and today its publication seems nearer. While the interpretation seems to be in line with what has been said in previous similar publications, the most interesting data will most likely be the actual samples, apparently already showing a lack of steppe ancestry in Iberian Bell Beaker, and a clear invasion of Bell Beaker peoples (hence R1b?) in Great Britain. Hopefully some new samples of Yamna and Corded Ware might give us interesting information.

It is always to be remembered that, when talking about Indo-European peoples, what matters is linguistics: after, all, the peoples whose place and time we want to find are defined by their language, Indo-European. Archaeology might be able to date some cultural developments potentially linked with Indo-European-speaking peoples, and genetics might give support to the expansion of peoples (and thus maybe languages) accompanying such cultural expansions. Recent genetic developments are quite interesting, in that we might be able to place Late Indo-European and North-West Indo-European speakers in place and time, but it seems to me that some people are trying to answer the Urheimat problem the other way around.

* J.P. Mallory, ‘The Indo-Europeanization of Atlantic Europe’, in Celtic From the West 2: Rethinking the Bronze Age and the Arrival of Indo-European in Atlantic Europe, eds J. T. Koch and B. Cunliffe (Oxford, 2013), p.17-40

** It has been proposed that Balto-Slavic derived partially from North-West Indo-European, and partially from a different Late Indo-European language, although there are different models to explain the pidginization of this dialect

Prometheus Engineer language in updated alternative version of A Grammar of Modern Indo-European

As we announced yesterday at Dnghu, our book A Grammar of Modern Indo-European, Third Edition has been revised, and the new version of the Proto-Indo-European lexicon has been added and it is available now online and printed at Amazon, without the Etymology section – it is therefore a cheaper, more handy manual.

But, more importantly, we have added a new section and published a parallel Prometheus Edition – Engineer language of the grammar, that includes unprecedented content with discussion of Prometheus’ recreated Late Proto-Indo-European dialect of the Prometheus/Alien/Predator fiction universe. There is also a printed version at Amazon. As you probably know already, our grammar is a Late Indo-European dialectal grammar, so it wasn’t difficult to add some information on ‘Engineer’ for fans.

We have opened a blog dedicated to the language, and a new dedicated section in our forum for discussion on this recreated language, and on the universe shared by Alien, Predator, Alien vs. Predator, and now also Prometheus franchises.

In my opinion, given the dialectal nature of the language as we know it now, the richness of the reconstruction on which it is based, and the specialized group that Ridley Scott contacted to work on it, it could be the most interesting conlang ever – or reclang, since it is recreated from a reconstruction…

Welcome back!

I have been trying to minimize contact with my own blogs, due to the huge amount of projects that I had – online as well as offline -, and the time-wasting nature of the dozen blogs I installed back in 2006-2009. They were (like this one) little more than dialectic in nature, with no particular aim.

Right now I am tired of developing new ideas without publicizing them. I think I have information on some fields where other people might be interested in, and projects whose development could be interesting to share.

For the moment, I have changed the WordPress theme to allow for an easy reading with smartphones and tablets.

Welcome back to all subscribers!

New Edition of “A Grammar of Modern Indo-European” Published

A new full-revised version of Dnghu‘s main book, A Grammar of Modern Indo-European, Third Edition, has been published.

Details on the revision are found at the Indo-European Linguistics blog.

Information on this major release and all subsequent changes will be published at Dnghu’s site on Indo-European Language Grammar. Files containing Proto-Indo-European vocabulary will be found at the Proto-Indo-European lexicon‘s site.

If you like the files, please recommend them to your friends in your social networks!

The official site where all newest version’s files and formats published should be found will be from now on indo-european.info.

Enjoy!

How to Fix a MySQL Character Encoding Mismatch in WordPress

An upgrade to a newer WordPress version, or (as in my case) to a newer version of MySQL, might trigger a problem which has been described since version 2.2: old UTF-8 characters are then represented by strange characters, say “é” will appear instead of “é”.

After reading some posts (e.g. this or this one) about how to fix it, I decided to solve it using one of the simple plugins out there. I tried both, UTF-8 Database converter and WP Sanitize Plugin.

But they just converted the database encoding the simple way. Which was fine, since I don’t care about non-European characters that much. However, there were still a lot of obvious character encoding errors, because the binary encoding was still wrong in many cases.

So I made multiple SQL queries to replace the wrong characters by their correct counterparts, and there it is: I fixed it without using the Shell commands of the aforementioned posts.

If you have the same problem, it will take you seconds to fix your character encoding issue, after having used one of the plugins above (say, UTF-8 Sanitize) and followed its instructions. Then execute the following SQL queries within your blog’s database:

Beware!

  1. Do not change the position of the last query: it should remain the last one.
  2. In that last query, for the wrong character “Ô, you have to choose which of these characters you want it substituted for: “à” (default, preferred if you write mostly in French), “Á”, “í”, “Í” (probably better choices for Spanish blogs), or even “Ï” or “Ý”.

I know, I know, it’s not a perfect solution – but it was indeed easier for me…

WordPress Translation plugin errors corrected – version 1.6.1, now with Google Translate Menu

The latest WordPress Translate Plugin released (1.6) showed an error in the website address conversion. It has been corrected, and a new version 1.6.1 has been released for those languages that had already the plugin with versions 1.5 and 1.6.

Also, a Google Translate Menu version has been included in the plugin package, along with the horizontal and vertical versions. Its output is similar to the one offered by Google, but without the Google style, logos and links, so that it is fully customizable for your blog’s theme. You can see the output of the Translate Menu at the Spanish version of this blog.

Please remember that the IndoEuropean Translator Widget for WordPress is more easily installed, that – unlike this plugin – it includes translation from and into all language pairs offered by Google Translate, and that it also includes all versions offered with this plugin – horizontal, vertical and menu.

The dnghu.php plugin is just a simple code, for those who know some HTML, PHP and/or CSS, who are able to modify the WordPress files, and who want to make the Translation Plugin fit perfectly into their theme.