The expansion of Indo-Europeans in Y-chromosome haplogroups

Featuredyamnaya-corded-ware-y-dna-haplogroups

I have compiled for two years now the reported Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroups of ancient DNA samples published, including also SNPs from analysis of the BAM files by hobbyists.

Y-DNA timeline

Here is a video with a timeline of the evolution of Indo-European speakers, according to what is known today about reconstructed languages, prehistoric cultures and ancient DNA:

yamnaya-expansion

NOTE. The video is best viewed in HD 1080p (1920×1080) with a display that allows for this or greater video quality, and a screen big enough to see haplogroup symbols, i.e. tablet or greater. The YouTube link is here. The Facebook link is here.

Based on the results of the past 5 years or so, which have been confirming this combined picture every single time, I doubt there will be much need to change it in any radical way, as only minor details remain to be clarified.

GIS maps

I wanted to publish a GIS tool of my own for everyone to have an updated reference of all data I use for my books.

The most complex GIS tools consume too many resources when used online in a client-server model, so I have to keep that to myself, but there are some ways to publish low quality outputs.

The files below include the possibility to zoom some levels to be able to see more samples, and also to check each one for more information on their ID, attributed culture and label, archaeological site, source paper, subclade (and people responsible for SNP inferences if any), etc.

Some usage notes:

  • Files are large (ca. 20 Mb), so they still take some time to load.
  • For the meaning of symbols and colors (for Y-DNA haplogroups), if there is any doubt, check the video above.
  • Pop-ups with sample information will work on desktop browsers by clicking on them, apparently not on smartphone and related tactile OS. I have changed the settings to show pop-ups on hover, so that it now works (to some extent) on tactile OS.
  • The search tool can look for specific samples according to their official ID, and works by highlighting the symbol of the selected individual (turning it into a bright blue dot), and leading the layer view to the location, but it seems to work best only with some browser and OS settings – in other browsers, you need to zoom out to see where the dot is located. The specific sample with its information could paradoxically disappear in search mode, so you might need to reload and look again for the same site that was highlighted.
  • Latitude and longitude values have been randomly modified to avoid samples overcrowding specific sites, so they are not the original ones.

Y-DNA GIS tool

There are three versions:

  1. Labels with more specific subclades (including negative SNPs), using YTree for R1b samples (whenever it conflicts with YFull).
  2. Labels with YFull nomenclature.
  3. Simbols without labels (more symbols visible per layer).

y-dna-haplogroups

mtDNA GIS tool

There are two versions:

  1. Symbols with labels.
  2. Symbols without labels.

NOTE. Because there are too many samples at the starting view, depending on the file you should zoom some levels to start seeing symbols.

mtdna-haplogroups

Static Maps

The following maps offer a timeline of Y-DNA and mtDNA evolution, divided into static periods corresponding to the Prehistoric Atlas.

Y-DNA + culture maps

The following files use the YTree or otherwise more comprehensive nomenclature than YFull. Symbols have a similar value as those from the GIS tools.

  1. Anatomically Modern Humans (PDF)
  2. Upper Palaeolithic (PDF)
  3. Epipalaeolithic (PDF)
  4. Early Mesolithic (PDF)
  5. Late Mesolithic (PDF)
  6. Neolithic and hunter-gatherer pottery (PDF)
  7. Early Eneolithic (PDF)
  8. Late Eneolithic (PDF)
  9. Early Chalcolithic (PDF)
  10. Late Chalcolithic (PDF)
  11. Early Bronze Age (PDF)
  12. Middle Bronze Age (PDF)
  13. Late Bronze Age (PDF)
  14. Early Iron Age (PDF)
  15. Late Iron Age (PDF)
  16. Antiquity (PDF)
  17. Middle Ages (PDF)

mtDNA + culture maps

Colours have been assigned randomly to each macro-haplogroup.

  1. Anatomically Modern Humans (PDF)
  2. Upper Palaeolithic (PDF)
  3. Epipalaeolithic (PDF)
  4. Early Mesolithic (PDF)
  5. Late Mesolithic (PDF)
  6. Neolithic and hunter-gatherer pottery (PDF)
  7. Early Eneolithic (PDF)
  8. Late Eneolithic (PDF)
  9. Early Chalcolithic (PDF)
  10. Late Chalcolithic (PDF)
  11. Early Bronze Age (PDF)
  12. Middle Bronze Age (PDF)
  13. Late Bronze Age (PDF)
  14. Early Iron Age (PDF)
  15. Late Iron Age (PDF)
  16. Antiquity (PDF)
  17. Middle Ages (PDF)

See also

Indo-Europeans and Finno-Ugric peoples might have shared the love for weed

paleobotany-cultures

Funny and interesting read to help relax the trolling wave caused by the first early Hittite samples:

Cannabis is indigenous to Europe and cultivation began during the Copper or Bronze age: a probabilistic synthesis of fossil pollen studies, by McPartland, Guy, & Hegman, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany (2018).

Abstract (emphasis mine):

Conventional wisdom states Cannabis sativa originated in Asia and its dispersal to Europe depended upon human transport. Various Neolithic or Bronze age groups have been named as pioneer cultivators. These theses were tested by examining fossil pollen studies (FPSs), obtained from the European Pollen Database. Many FPSs report Cannabis or Humulus (C/H) with collective names (e.g. Cannabis/Humulus or Cannabaceae). To dissect these aggregate data, we used ecological proxies to differentiate C/H pollen, as follows: unknown C/H pollen that appeared in a pollen assemblage suggestive of steppe (Poaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae) we interpreted as wild-type Cannabis. C/H pollen in a mesophytic forest assemblage (Alnus, Salix, Populus) we interpreted as Humulus. C/H pollen curves that upsurged and appeared de novo alongside crop pollen grains we interpreted as cultivated hemp. FPSs were mapped and compared to the territories of archaeological cultures. We analysed 479 FPSs from the Holocene/Late Glacial, plus 36 FPSs from older strata. The results showed C/H pollen consistent with wild-type C. sativa in steppe and dry tundra landscapes throughout Europe during the early Holocene, Late Glacial, and previous glaciations. During the warm and wet Holocene Climactic Optimum, forests replaced steppe, and Humulus dominated. Cannabis retreated to steppe refugia. C/H pollen consistent with cultivated hemp first appeared in the Pontic-Caspian steppe refugium. GIS mapping linked cultivation with the Copper age Varna/Gumelniţa culture, and the Bronze age Yamnaya and Terramara cultures. An Iron age steppe culture, the Scythians, likely introduced hemp cultivation to Celtic and Proto-Slavic cultures.

Interesting excerpts (modified to make them more readable):

C. sativa during the Copper age

We compared the territories of Copper age cultures with locations of C–H pollen consistent with Cannabis in Fig. 5. This suggests that two Copper age cultures had the potential to domesticate wild-type C. sativa: the Greek Chalcolithic, and the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture. C–H pollen consistent with cultivated Cannabis occurred at one site in Bulgaria. This site may correspond to the Varna culture or Gumelniţa culture. However, pollen at five other Varna and Gumelniţa sites was interpreted as Humulus, or undetermined C/H. Archaeological studies of Gumelniţa and Cucuteni-Tripolye sites have found C. sativa seeds and less-robust evidence—pottery seed impressions (Clarke and Merlin 2013; Long et al. 2017; McPartland and Hegman 2017).

paleobotany-cannabis-europe
Cannabis distribution ca. 4,500–2,300 cal BP.

C. sativa during the Bronze age

Eight Bronze age cultures had potential: C–H pollen consistent with wild-type Cannabis in Fig. 6 appeared within the boundaries of several Bronze age cultures. These include the Netted Ware culture, Ezero culture, Yamnaya culture, Corded Ware culture, Bell-Beaker culture, Terramara culture, Aegean Bronze age, and Mycenaean Greece. C–H pollen interpreted as cultivated C. sativa appeared in four studies: One study in Yamnaya territory agrees with archaeological studies, which have recovered C. sativa seeds or pottery seed impressions (Clarke and Merlin 2013; Long et al. 2017; McPartland and Hegman 2017). Two study sites are associated with the Terramara culture. However, pollen in 11 other studies at Terramara sites suggested Humulus or indeterminate C/H pollen. One FPS in France was likely contaminated by taphonomic processes, as admitted by its authors.

Scythian contacts with Celts and Balto-Slavs

The Scythians impacted deeply on the Celts, in the realms of art, animal husbandry, military strategy, language, and even clothing. The oldest evidence of Scythian–Celtic interactions that we could find was a 7th century bce burial in Bulgaria, which combined elements of Scythian culture along with a Hallstatt vessel (Braund 2015). Scythian artifacts in Hallstatt-occupied Hungary first appear around 550 bce (Bartosiewicz and Gál 2010). A Hallstatt burial at Vix in France from 525 bce contains items and motifs inspired by Scythian culture (Megaw 1966). These data collectively suggest a conservative date of 550 bce as the terminus post quem for Scythian contact with the Celts. Only three sites in Celtic territory showed pollen signals consistent with hemp cultivation prior to 550 bce. To wit, the oldest ones had problems with dating. In contrast, 28 FPSs in Celtic territory showed pollen signals of hemp cultivation arising post-550 bce, after their contact with the Scythians.

The Scythians also impacted Proto-Slavic cultures. The Scythians left a trail of burned-out settlements built by the Proto-Slavic Lusatian culture around 600 bce (Bukowski 1977). A horde of Scythian artifacts found at Witaszkowo in Lusatia dates to 550 bce (Furtwängler 1883). Only two pre-550 bce sites in Slavic/Baltic territory showed signals consistent with hemp cultivation, and they occurred in the southeast, towards the Scythian homeland. Ralska-Jasiewiczowa and van Geel (1998) linked the appearance of Cannabis pollen in Poland with Scythian incursions. The Scythians appear to be responsible for the spread of Cannabis amongst several Iron age European cultures.

There you have it, the long-sought Yamna – Corded Ware cultural connection. Finno-Ugric peoples liked it wild, though 😉