Yamnaya Hungary

Map of Yamna expansion in Hungary, from the collection of Maps of prehistoric migrations.

For context and reference, please read the book on Indo-European and Uralic migrations.

Click on each file to open or download the full version.

Current version: 1.1 (January 2021)

Map of attested Yamnaya pit-grave burials in the Hungarian plains; superimposed in shades of blue are common areas covered by floods before the extensive controls imposed in the 19th century; in yellow/orange, cumulative thickness of sand, unfavourable loamy sand layer. Marked are settlements/findings of Boleráz (ca. 3500 BC on), Baden (until ca. 2800 BC), Kostolac (precise dates unknown), and Yamna kurgans (from ca. 3100/3000 BC on). See full image.

Map based on the work of Tünde Horváth, Volker Heyd, Csaba Tóth, and others:

One version from both maps shown in the article, by T. Horváth: “Since the two cultures surely lived together in the Late Copper Age, their collective map represents the Late Copper Age (supplemented with Vučedol sites). Since the direction of diffusion of the Kostolac ceramic style is still unclear, two map versions were made. On one the Kostolac followed the Danube River, on the other they diffused in the opposite direction. In northeast Hungary, Coțofeni III appeared. On this map Kostolac sites are not depicted as dots but, in light of their position and density, proportionately sized arrows are used.”
Distribution of tumuli in Hungary (source: Ministry of Environment and Water Management, National Inventory of Tumuli). Image by Csaba Tóth.

Data on environment:

The geomorphological divisions of Hungary (Simplifi ed after Pécsi and Somogyi ( 1969 ) ;
Pécsi ( 1970b ), in Recent Landform Evolution in Hungary by Lóczy et al. (2012).
Map of regularly inundated and seasonally waterlogged areas in Hungary before flow
regulations. in Recent Landform Evolution in Hungary by Lóczy et al. (2012).