The expansion of Indo-Europeans in Y-chromosome haplogroups

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I have compiled for two years now the reported Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroups of ancient DNA samples published, including also SNPs from analysis of the BAM files by hobbyists.

Y-DNA timeline

Here is a video with a timeline of the evolution of Indo-European speakers, according to what is known today about reconstructed languages, prehistoric cultures and ancient DNA:

yamnaya-expansion

NOTE. The video is best viewed in HD 1080p (1920×1080) with a display that allows for this or greater video quality, and a screen big enough to see haplogroup symbols, i.e. tablet or greater. The YouTube link is here. The Facebook link is here.

Based on the results of the past 5 years or so, which have been confirming this combined picture every single time, I doubt there will be much need to change it in any radical way, as only minor details remain to be clarified.

GIS maps

I wanted to publish a GIS tool of my own for everyone to have an updated reference of all data I use for my books.

The most complex GIS tools consume too many resources when used online in a client-server model, so I have to keep that to myself, but there are some ways to publish low quality outputs.

The files below include the possibility to zoom some levels to be able to see more samples, and also to check each one for more information on their ID, attributed culture and label, archaeological site, source paper, subclade (and people responsible for SNP inferences if any), etc.

Some usage notes:

  • Files are large (ca. 20 Mb), so they still take some time to load.
  • For the meaning of symbols and colors (for Y-DNA haplogroups), if there is any doubt, check the video above.
  • Pop-ups with sample information will work on desktop browsers by clicking on them, apparently not on smartphone and related tactile OS. I have changed the settings to show pop-ups on hover, so that it now works (to some extent) on tactile OS.
  • The search tool can look for specific samples according to their official ID, and works by highlighting the symbol of the selected individual (turning it into a bright blue dot), and leading the layer view to the location, but it seems to work best only with some browser and OS settings – in other browsers, you need to zoom out to see where the dot is located. The specific sample with its information could paradoxically disappear in search mode, so you might need to reload and look again for the same site that was highlighted.
  • Latitude and longitude values have been randomly modified to avoid samples overcrowding specific sites, so they are not the original ones.

Y-DNA GIS tool

There are three versions:

  1. Labels with more specific subclades (including negative SNPs), using YTree for R1b samples (whenever it conflicts with YFull).
  2. Labels with YFull nomenclature.
  3. Simbols without labels (more symbols visible per layer).

y-dna-haplogroups

mtDNA GIS tool

There are two versions:

  1. Symbols with labels.
  2. Symbols without labels.

NOTE. Because there are too many samples at the starting view, depending on the file you should zoom some levels to start seeing symbols.

mtdna-haplogroups

Static Maps

The following maps offer a timeline of Y-DNA and mtDNA evolution, divided into static periods corresponding to the Prehistoric Atlas.

Y-DNA + culture maps

The following files use the YTree or otherwise more comprehensive nomenclature than YFull. Symbols have a similar value as those from the GIS tools.

  1. Anatomically Modern Humans (PDF)
  2. Upper Palaeolithic (PDF)
  3. Epipalaeolithic (PDF)
  4. Early Mesolithic (PDF)
  5. Late Mesolithic (PDF)
  6. Neolithic and hunter-gatherer pottery (PDF)
  7. Early Eneolithic (PDF)
  8. Late Eneolithic (PDF)
  9. Early Chalcolithic (PDF)
  10. Late Chalcolithic (PDF)
  11. Early Bronze Age (PDF)
  12. Middle Bronze Age (PDF)
  13. Late Bronze Age (PDF)
  14. Early Iron Age (PDF)
  15. Late Iron Age (PDF)
  16. Antiquity (PDF)
  17. Middle Ages (PDF)

mtDNA + culture maps

Colours have been assigned randomly to each macro-haplogroup.

  1. Anatomically Modern Humans (PDF)
  2. Upper Palaeolithic (PDF)
  3. Epipalaeolithic (PDF)
  4. Early Mesolithic (PDF)
  5. Late Mesolithic (PDF)
  6. Neolithic and hunter-gatherer pottery (PDF)
  7. Early Eneolithic (PDF)
  8. Late Eneolithic (PDF)
  9. Early Chalcolithic (PDF)
  10. Late Chalcolithic (PDF)
  11. Early Bronze Age (PDF)
  12. Middle Bronze Age (PDF)
  13. Late Bronze Age (PDF)
  14. Early Iron Age (PDF)
  15. Late Iron Age (PDF)
  16. Antiquity (PDF)
  17. Middle Ages (PDF)

See also