Iberia: East Bell Beakers spread Indo-European languages; Celts expanded later

New paper (behind paywall), The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years, by Olalde et al. Science (2019).

NOTE. Access to article from Reich Lab: main paper and supplementary materials.

Abstract:

We assembled genome-wide data from 271 ancient Iberians, of whom 176 are from the largely unsampled period after 2000 BCE, thereby providing a high-resolution time transect of the Iberian Peninsula. We document high genetic substructure between northwestern and southeastern hunter-gatherers before the spread of farming. We reveal sporadic contacts between Iberia and North Africa by ~2500 BCE and, by ~2000 BCE, the replacement of 40% of Iberia’s ancestry and nearly 100% of its Y-chromosomes by people with Steppe ancestry. We show that, in the Iron Age, Steppe ancestry had spread not only into Indo-European–speaking regions but also into non-Indo-European–speaking ones, and we reveal that present-day Basques are best described as a typical Iron Age population without the admixture events that later affected the rest of Iberia. Additionally, we document how, beginning at least in the Roman period, the ancestry of the peninsula was transformed by gene flow from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean.

Interesting excerpts:

From the Bronze Age (~2200–900 BCE), we increase the available dataset (6, 7, 17) from 7 to 60 individuals and show how ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian steppe (Steppe ancestry) appeared throughout Iberia in this period (Fig. 1, C and D), albeit with less impact in the south (table S13). The earliest evidence is in 14 individuals dated to ~2500–2000 BCE who coexisted with local people without Steppe ancestry (Fig. 2B). These groups lived in close proximity and admixed to form the Bronze Age population after 2000 BCE with ~40% ancestry from incoming groups (Fig. 2B and fig. S6).

Y-chromosome turnover was even more pronounced (Fig. 2B), as the lineages common in Copper Age Iberia (I2, G2, and H) were almost completely replaced by one lineage, R1b-M269. These patterns point to a higher contribution of incoming males than females, also supported by a lower proportion of nonlocal ancestry on the X-chromosome (table S14 and fig. S7), a paradigm that can be exemplified by a Bronze Age tomb from Castillejo del Bonete containing a male with Steppe ancestry and a female with ancestry similar to Copper Age Iberians.

iberian-adna

For the Iron Age, we document a consistent trend of increased ancestry related to Northern and Central European populations with respect to the preceding Bronze Age (Figs. 1, C and D, and 2B). The increase was 10 to 19% (95% confidence intervals given here and in the percentages that follow) in 15 individuals along the Mediterranean coast where non-Indo-European Iberian languages were spoken; 11 to 31% in two individuals at the Tartessian site of La Angorrilla in the southwest with uncertain language attribution; and 28 to 43% in three individuals at La Hoya in the north where Indo-European Celtiberian languages were likely spoken (fig. S6 and tables S11 and S12).

This trend documents gene flow into Iberia during the Late Bronze Age or Early Iron Age, possibly associated with the introduction of the Urnfield tradition (18). Unlike in Central or Northern Europe, where Steppe ancestry likely marked the introduction of Indo-European languages (12), our results indicate that, in Iberia, increases in Steppe ancestry were not always accompanied by switches to Indo-European languages.

I think it is obvious they are extrapolating the traditional (not that well-known) linguistic picture of Iberia during the Iron Age, believing in continuity of that picture (especially non-Indo-European languages) during the Urnfield period and earlier.

What this data shows is, as expected, the arrival of Celtic languages in Iberia after Bell Beakers and, by extension, in the rest of western Europe. Somewhat surprisingly, this may have happened during the Urnfield period, and not during the La Tène period.

Also important are the precise subclades:

We thus detect three Bronze Age males who belonged to DF27 (154, 155), confirming its presence in Bronze Age Iberia. The other Iberian Bronze Age males could belong to DF27 as well, but the extremely low recovery rate of this SNP in our dataset prevented us to study its true distribution. All the Iberian Bronze Age males with overlapping sequences at R1b-L21 were negative for this mutation. Therefore, we can rule out Britain as a plausible proximate origin since contemporaneous British males are derived for the L21 subtype.


New open access paper Survival of Late Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherer Ancestry in the Iberian Peninsula, by Villalba-Mouco et al. Cell (2019):

BAL0051 could be assigned to haplogroup I1, while BAL003 carries the C1a1a haplogroup. To the limits of our typing resolution, EN/MN individuals CHA001, CHA003, ELT002 and ELT006 share haplogroup I2a1b, which was also reported for Loschbour [73] and Motala HG [13], and other LN and Chalcolithic individuals from Iberia [7, 9], as well as Neolithic Scotland, France, England [9], and Lithuania [14]. Both C1 and I1/ I2 are considered typical European HG lineages prior to the arrival of farming. Interestingly, CHA002 was assigned to haplogroup R1b-M343, which together with an EN individual from Cova de Els Trocs (R1b1a) confirms the presence of R1b in Western Europe prior to the expansion of steppe pastoralists that established a related male lineage in Bronze Age Europe [3, 6, 9, 13, 19]. The geographical vicinity and contemporaneity of these two sites led us to run genomic kinship analysis in order to rule out any first or second degree of relatedness. Early Neolithic individual FUC003 carries the Y haplogroup G2a2a1, commonly found in other EN males from Neolithic Anatolia [13], Starçevo, LBK Hungary [18], Impressa from Croatia and Serbia Neolithic [19] and Czech Neolithic [9], but also in MN Croatia [19] and Chalcolithic Iberia [9].

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[…] you can see from my interest in the recently published Olalde et al. (2019) Iberia paper, once you accept that East Bell Beakers expanded North-West Indo-European, the most important […]

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[…] Re: Iberia: East Bell Beakers spread Indo-European languages; Celts expanded in the Iron Age March 15, 2019Thank you, I don't think I worry about them, tho.I just want to explain (once more) to any potential new reader where the hate-mongering and bigotry comes from. This here is no 'chicken or egg' paradox.. Carlos Quiles […]

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[…] Proportion of ancestry derived from central European Beaker/Bronze Age populations in Iberians from the Middle Neolithic to the Iron Age (table S15). Colors indicate the Y-chromosome haplogroup for each male. Red lines represent period of admixture. Modified from Olalde et al. (2019). […]

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[…] Iberia: East Bell Beakers spread Indo-European languages; Celts expanded later […]

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[…] Iberia: East Bell Beakers spread Indo-European languages; Celts expanded later […]

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[…] copied by Copenhagen from amateur friends had been already rejected before the article came out, in Olalde et al. (2019), and that “Corded Ware=Indo-European” fans have become a parody of […]

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[…] It seems that – exactly as expected – different waves of steppe nomads brought different lineages in a time (the Iron Age) where many regions incorporated different eastern lineages without necessarily changing language. Just like the expansion of N among Ugrians and Samoyeds, and N1c among Finno-Permic peoples, and many other lineages in central and western Europe… […]

Egg
Egg

Few PCA images based on the samples from the current paper that might interest you:

With some North and sub-Saharan African populations included: https://imgur.com/a/irvTgaY

Without: https://imgur.com/a/pMIUoGd

Also as I indirecly alluded to in the previous post here and you mentioned, the results here definitely and obviously strengthen the Central European view for Celtic. Want the shift of Ireland towards the continent compared to Ireland_EBA clarified as well.

Carlos Quiles

Can’t see Ireland_EBA in your plots, but I guess they will cluster more “northern/central-eastern European” than modern Irish, in line with their Dutch BBC origin, as we already know, due to the higher ‘CWC steppe’ contribution. Anyway, the Celtic from the West theory is a linguistic one, so its proponents may argue that BBC was an old Celtic wave that was later replaced by another, Central European one. I guess it all depends on how you see Lusitanian. If you see it as ‘Pre-Celtic’ (however un-Celtic it may be), or ‘archaic Italo-Celtic’ (even if it is clearly not within the… Read more »

Egg
Egg

My bad, the wording was a bit misleading. I didn’t include Ireland_EBA in that one, just modern Europeans (plus some ancient and modern Africans in the one set to illustrate the African pull in some genomes) and the paper’s samples. Here’s a zoom-in of a West Eurasian plot that includes Ireland_EBA, Irish, Hallstatt_Bylany and Ireland_MN: https://imgur.com/a/VCg4zYX There’s an obvious shift towards the EEF-HG side of things like you said since Ireland_EBA has higher steppe ancestry. A continental population that looks like the eastern Hallstatt one makes sense but this particular one doesn’t seem like it fits well. It seems closer… Read more »

Egg
Egg

My bad, the wording was a bit misleading. I didn’t include Ireland_EBA in that one, just modern Europeans (plus some ancient and modern Africans in the one set to illustrate the African pull in some genomes) and the paper’s samples. Here’s a zoom-in of a West Eurasian plot that includes Ireland_EBA, Irish, Hallstatt_Bylany and Ireland_MN: https://imgur.com/a/VCg4zYX There’s an obvious shift towards the EEF-HG side of things like you said since Ireland_EBA has higher steppe ancestry. A continental population that looks like the eastern Hallstatt one makes sense but this particular one doesn’t seem like it fits well. It seems closer… Read more »

Egg
Egg

Also, to elaborate a bit on the one Hallstatt sample, DA112:

comment image

Compared to the other Hallstatt sample, DA111, it seems to have a certain attraction to Baltic_BA-like populations, part of the kind of ancestry that seems at least partially responsible for the western/eastern European split.

Carlos Quiles

Can’t see Ireland_EBA in your plots, but I guess they will cluster more “northern/central-eastern European” than modern Irish, in line with their Dutch BBC origin, as we already know, due to the higher ‘CWC steppe’ contribution. Anyway, the Celtic from the West theory is a linguistic one, so its proponents may argue that BBC was an old Celtic wave that was later replaced by another, Central European one. I guess it all depends on how you see Lusitanian. If you see it as ‘Pre-Celtic’ (however un-Celtic it may be), or ‘archaic Italo-Celtic’ (even if it is clearly not within the… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

Can’t see Ireland_EBA in your plots, but I guess they will cluster more “northern/central-eastern European” than modern Irish, in line with their Dutch BBC origin, as we already know, due to the higher ‘CWC steppe’ contribution. Anyway, the Celtic from the West theory is a linguistic one, so its proponents may argue that BBC was an old Celtic wave that was later replaced by another, Central European one. I guess it all depends on how you see Lusitanian. If you see it as ‘Pre-Celtic’ (however un-Celtic it may be), or ‘archaic Italo-Celtic’ (even if it is clearly not within the… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

Can’t see Ireland_EBA in your plots, but I guess they will cluster more “northern/central-eastern European” than modern Irish, in line with their Dutch BBC origin, as we already know, due to the higher ‘CWC steppe’ contribution. Anyway, the Celtic from the West theory is a linguistic one, so its proponents may argue that BBC was an old Celtic wave that was later replaced by another, Central European one. I guess it all depends on how you see Lusitanian. If you see it as ‘Pre-Celtic’ (however un-Celtic it may be), or ‘archaic Italo-Celtic’ (even if it is clearly not within the… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

Interesting how Iberia BBC and BA samples are not descended from Dutch Beakers, and prefer Central Europe.

Must be some mistake here, of course, these Harvard amateurs…

They should contact the true expert armchair ‘geneticists’ out there and start working with cephalic index calculators, what a shame.

LOL
comment image

Carlos Quiles

Also this: Only one 2-way model fits the ancestry in Iberia_CA_Stp with P-value>0.05: Germany_Beaker + Iberia_CA (Table S11). Finding a Bell Beaker-related group as a plausible source for the introduction of steppe ancestry into Iberia is consistent with the fact that some of the individuals in the Iberia_CA_Stp group were excavated in Bell Beaker associated contexts (9). Models with Iberia_CA and other Bell Beaker groups such as France_Beaker (P-value=7.31E-06), Netherlands_Beaker (P-value=1.03E-03) and England_Beaker (P-value=4.86E-02) failed, probably because they have slightly higher proportions of steppe ancestry than the true source population. For Iberia_BA, we added Iberia_CA_Stp to the outgroup set as… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

Also this: Only one 2-way model fits the ancestry in Iberia_CA_Stp with P-value>0.05: Germany_Beaker + Iberia_CA (Table S11). Finding a Bell Beaker-related group as a plausible source for the introduction of steppe ancestry into Iberia is consistent with the fact that some of the individuals in the Iberia_CA_Stp group were excavated in Bell Beaker associated contexts (9). Models with Iberia_CA and other Bell Beaker groups such as France_Beaker (P-value=7.31E-06), Netherlands_Beaker (P-value=1.03E-03) and England_Beaker (P-value=4.86E-02) failed, probably because they have slightly higher proportions of steppe ancestry than the true source population. For Iberia_BA, we added Iberia_CA_Stp to the outgroup set as… Read more »

Egg
Egg

We’ve discussed this before and we both understand the problems with the reflux kind of model but to be fair to the proponent of that theory, his view wasn’t that Iberian Beakers would have been direct descendants of Dutch Beakers. Rather that there was a genetic cline that goes Netherlands -> Central Europe -> South France -> Iberia and the latter two are the sources used here as well. In general, I don’t get why you guys have to take snipes at each other since you both contribute valuable stuff, whatever differences in interpretation. 😉 This paper has a lot… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

his view wasn’t that Iberian Beakers would have been direct descendants of Dutch Beakers. Rather that there was a genetic cline that goes Netherlands -> Central Europe -> South France -> Iberia and the latter two are the sources used here as well. I disagree. Despicable me and his minions have obsessively tested Dutch Beaker and EBA as a source for every single Beaker and Beaker-derived BA sample out there (and late CW as a source for Dutch Beakers) in the past two months, including Iberian individuals, and published the results interpreted as supporting the emergence and expansion of super… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

his view wasn’t that Iberian Beakers would have been direct descendants of Dutch Beakers. Rather that there was a genetic cline that goes Netherlands -> Central Europe -> South France -> Iberia and the latter two are the sources used here as well. I disagree. Despicable me and his minions have obsessively tested Dutch Beaker and EBA as a source for every single Beaker and Beaker-derived BA sample out there (and late CW as a source for Dutch Beakers) in the past two months, including Iberian individuals, and published the results interpreted as supporting the emergence and expansion of super… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

his view wasn’t that Iberian Beakers would have been direct descendants of Dutch Beakers. Rather that there was a genetic cline that goes Netherlands -> Central Europe -> South France -> Iberia and the latter two are the sources used here as well. I disagree. Despicable me and his minions have obsessively tested Dutch Beaker and EBA as a source for every single Beaker and Beaker-derived BA sample out there (and late CW as a source for Dutch Beakers) in the past two months, including Iberian individuals, and published the results interpreted as supporting the emergence and expansion of super… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

his view wasn’t that Iberian Beakers would have been direct descendants of Dutch Beakers. Rather that there was a genetic cline that goes Netherlands -> Central Europe -> South France -> Iberia and the latter two are the sources used here as well. I disagree. Despicable me and his minions have obsessively tested Dutch Beaker and EBA as a source for every single Beaker and Beaker-derived BA sample out there (and late CW as a source for Dutch Beakers) in the past two months, including Iberian individuals, and published the results interpreted as supporting the emergence and expansion of super… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

his view wasn’t that Iberian Beakers would have been direct descendants of Dutch Beakers. Rather that there was a genetic cline that goes Netherlands -> Central Europe -> South France -> Iberia and the latter two are the sources used here as well. I disagree. Despicable me and his minions have obsessively tested Dutch Beaker and EBA as a source for every single Beaker and Beaker-derived BA sample out there (and late CW as a source for Dutch Beakers) in the past two months, including Iberian individuals, and published the results interpreted as supporting the emergence and expansion of super… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

his view wasn’t that Iberian Beakers would have been direct descendants of Dutch Beakers. Rather that there was a genetic cline that goes Netherlands -> Central Europe -> South France -> Iberia and the latter two are the sources used here as well. I disagree. Despicable me and his minions have obsessively tested Dutch Beaker and EBA as a source for every single Beaker and Beaker-derived BA sample out there (and late CW as a source for Dutch Beakers) in the past two months, including Iberian individuals, and published the results interpreted as supporting the emergence and expansion of super… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

his view wasn’t that Iberian Beakers would have been direct descendants of Dutch Beakers. Rather that there was a genetic cline that goes Netherlands -> Central Europe -> South France -> Iberia and the latter two are the sources used here as well. I disagree. Despicable me and his minions have obsessively tested Dutch Beaker and EBA as a source for every single Beaker and Beaker-derived BA sample out there (and late CW as a source for Dutch Beakers) in the past two months, including Iberian individuals, and published the results interpreted as supporting the emergence and expansion of super… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

his view wasn’t that Iberian Beakers would have been direct descendants of Dutch Beakers. Rather that there was a genetic cline that goes Netherlands -> Central Europe -> South France -> Iberia and the latter two are the sources used here as well. I disagree. Despicable me and his minions have obsessively tested Dutch Beaker and EBA as a source for every single Beaker and Beaker-derived BA sample out there (and late CW as a source for Dutch Beakers) in the past two months, including Iberian individuals, and published the results interpreted as supporting the emergence and expansion of super… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

his view wasn’t that Iberian Beakers would have been direct descendants of Dutch Beakers. Rather that there was a genetic cline that goes Netherlands -> Central Europe -> South France -> Iberia and the latter two are the sources used here as well. I disagree. Despicable me and his minions have obsessively tested Dutch Beaker and EBA as a source for every single Beaker and Beaker-derived BA sample out there (and late CW as a source for Dutch Beakers) in the past two months, including Iberian individuals, and published the results interpreted as supporting the emergence and expansion of super… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

his view wasn’t that Iberian Beakers would have been direct descendants of Dutch Beakers. Rather that there was a genetic cline that goes Netherlands -> Central Europe -> South France -> Iberia and the latter two are the sources used here as well. I disagree. Despicable me and his minions have obsessively tested Dutch Beaker and EBA as a source for every single Beaker and Beaker-derived BA sample out there (and late CW as a source for Dutch Beakers) in the past two months, including Iberian individuals, and published the results interpreted as supporting the emergence and expansion of super… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

his view wasn’t that Iberian Beakers would have been direct descendants of Dutch Beakers. Rather that there was a genetic cline that goes Netherlands -> Central Europe -> South France -> Iberia and the latter two are the sources used here as well. I disagree. Despicable me and his minions have obsessively tested Dutch Beaker and EBA as a source for every single Beaker and Beaker-derived BA sample out there (and late CW as a source for Dutch Beakers) in the past two months, including Iberian individuals, and published the results interpreted as supporting the emergence and expansion of super… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

his view wasn’t that Iberian Beakers would have been direct descendants of Dutch Beakers. Rather that there was a genetic cline that goes Netherlands -> Central Europe -> South France -> Iberia and the latter two are the sources used here as well. I disagree. Despicable me and his minions have obsessively tested Dutch Beaker and EBA as a source for every single Beaker and Beaker-derived BA sample out there (and late CW as a source for Dutch Beakers) in the past two months, including Iberian individuals, and published the results interpreted as supporting the emergence and expansion of super… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

The paper has some quite interesting data, including continuous contacts with North Africa, especially since the Roman Empire (which connected the whole Mediterranean). The finding of so little North African ancestry in recent times (compared to what one would have expected) in recent papers is striking, though, and may have to do with the effective size of the African population that admixed in Iberia, even more than the so often talked about Reconquest and expulsion of Muslims. Maybe Y-chromosome will be more revealing in this sense. Lactase persistence, like hair or eye color, or cephalic size, or ABO group, was… Read more »

Carlos Quiles

Also this: Only one 2-way model fits the ancestry in Iberia_CA_Stp with P-value>0.05: Germany_Beaker + Iberia_CA (Table S11). Finding a Bell Beaker-related group as a plausible source for the introduction of steppe ancestry into Iberia is consistent with the fact that some of the individuals in the Iberia_CA_Stp group were excavated in Bell Beaker associated contexts (9). Models with Iberia_CA and other Bell Beaker groups such as France_Beaker (P-value=7.31E-06), Netherlands_Beaker (P-value=1.03E-03) and England_Beaker (P-value=4.86E-02) failed, probably because they have slightly higher proportions of steppe ancestry than the true source population. For Iberia_BA, we added Iberia_CA_Stp to the outgroup set as… Read more »

Jimbo
Jimbo

Don’t worry about those frustrated neckbeards so much, Carlos.
Continue being objective. You guys are catering to different interest groups: those interested in science vs. those wanting to validate their insecurities with science

Carlos Quiles

Thank you, I don’t think I worry about them, tho.

I just want to explain (once more, see here or here) to any potential new reader where the hate-mongering and bigotry comes from. This here is no ‘chicken or egg’ paradox..

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[…] to happen in the same way as during the Neolithic or Chalcolithic, be it in Finland, Hungary, Iberia, or Poland. For example, no matter whether Romans (2nd c. BC) brought some R1b-U152 and other […]

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[…] lineages seem to have expanded from Central Europe into Iberia much more recently than other DF27 subclades associated with Bell Beakers. What’s more, if R1b-M157/SRY2627 appear densest in north-east Spain it is not because of the […]

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[…] The most interesting recent data has come from Iberia and the Mediterranean. Lacking direct data from the Italian Peninsula (and thus from the emergence […]

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[…] of elevated CEU BA ancestry and hg. R1b-P312 to the south of the Pyrenees during the Iron Age in Olalde et al. (2019), and to the Balto-Finno-Slavs of hg. R1a-Z283 and “Steppe ancestry” in the East Baltic […]

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[…] we have more samples from the so-called Emporion 2 cluster in Olalde et al. (2019), which shows Mycenaean-like eastern Mediterranean ancestry and 3 (out of 3) samples of haplogroup […]

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[…] Iberia: East Bell Beakers spread Indo-European languages; Celts expanded later […]

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[…] Olalde et al. (2019) confirmed this hypothesis that modern Basques are quite similar to investigated Iron Age Indo-Europeans from Iberia (such as Celtiberians sampled from the Basque Country): […]

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[…] Mittnik et al. (2018), Lamnidis et al. (2018), Fernandes et al. (2018), Jeong et al. (2019), Olalde et al. (2019), […]

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[…] recent data on ancient DNA from Iberia published by Olalde et al. (2019) was interesting for many different reasons, but I still have the impression that the authors […]

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[…] of native Vasconic R1b hidden somewhere in Western Europe even after Olalde et al. (2018) and Olalde et al. (2019), the mythic native Nordic R1b-U106 of Corded Ware will remain hidden in some unsampled Corded Ware […]

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[…] Lab, the latest on Central and South Asia by Narasimhan, Patterson et al. (2019), on Iberia by Olalde et al. (2019), and on the East Baltic by Saag et al. (2019), as well as datasets including samples from Wang et […]