South Siberian Urheimaten and Sprachbünde

The long-lasting intertwined ethnolinguistic developments of East Uralic speakers with Palaeo-Siberian populations makes it impossible to split up a post about the evolution of the former without discussing the fate of the latter.

External contacts with other indigenous East Asian languages close to the Altai-Sayan region and Circum-Baikal area are also relevant, but would no doubt turn this post series into an unending task. Therefore, I will focus on the western part of the Baikal Neolithic and Neo-Siberian-related ancestry clines, which seem more relevant for the ancient stages of Ob-Ugric and Samoyed developments.

For an easier read of a matter that is often too complex to properly visualize, I will divide this series chronologically, trying to repeat for each selected period/language group the logical sequence of (1) linguistics, (2) archaeology, & (3) population genomics, even though the quantity and quality of data might vary greatly depending on the age, discipline, and language group.

This is the current list of posts published from this series:

  1. Dene-Yeniseian, Eskimo-Aleut, and Chukotko-Kamchatkan
  2. Proto-Yeniseian Homeland
  3. Ob-Ugric Homeland
  4. Proto-Samoyed Homeland
  5. Proto-Turkic Homeland

Ethnolinguistic map of Siberia, based on the 1600 tsarist yasak (fur tax collection). See full map. Image modified from Reddit (original map from Dolgix’).


Below is the bibliography collected for all published posts, especially those concerning linguistics and archaelogy. Recent papers on population genomics are frequently directly linked in the post using its DOI.

Please let me know if some reference from the posts is lacking here.

Akulov, A., Efimova, N. (2019). Hydronymy of Yeniseian origin in the basin of Oka river. Cultural Anthropology and Ethnosemiotics vol. 5, Nº 4.

Aikio, A. (2014). The Uralic-Yukaghir lexical correspondences: genetic inheritance, language contact or chance resemblance?. Finnisch-Ugrische Forschungen, 2014(62), 7-76.

Anderson, G. D., & Harrison, K. D. (2020). Hunter-Gatherers in South Siberia. In: Güldemann, T., McConvell, P., & Rhodes, R. A. (Eds.). (2020). The language of hunter-gatherers. Cambridge University Press.

Barrere, I. (2016). The Case for Proto-Mongolic Palatovelar Harmony.

Barrere, I. G., & Janhunen, J. A. (2019). Mongolian vowel harmony in a Eurasian context. International Journal of Eurasian Linguistics, 1(1), 46-77.

Bednarczuk, L. (2015). Non-Indo-European features of the Tocharian dialects. Words and dictionaries. A Festschrift for Professor Stanisław Stachowski on the occasion of his 85th birthday. Kraków, 55-67.

Blažek, V., & Schwarz, M. (2017). Early Indo-Europeans in Central Asia and China. Cultural relations as reflected in language (Vol. 1). Wolfgang Meid-Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Kulturwissenschaft.

Bobrov, V. (2021). Shigir idol: Origin of monumental sculpture and ideas about the ways of preservation of the representational tradition. Quaternary International, 573, 38-48.

Bokovenko, N. (2006). The emergence of the Tagar culture. Antiquity, 80(310), 860-879.

Brosseder, U. (2018). Xiongnu and Huns: Archaeological Perspectives on a Centuries-Old Debate about Identity and Migration. IN: Di Cosmo, N., & Maas, M. (Eds.). (2018). Empires and Exchanges in Eurasian Late Antiquity: Rome, China, Iran, and the Steppe, ca. 250–750. Cambridge University Press.

Chernykh, E. N., & Kuzminykh, S. V. (1989). Ancient metallurgy in the northern Eurasia:(Seyma-Turbino phenomenon). Nauka.

De Smit, M. (2019). Reconsidering Uralo-Yukaghir morphology. Unpublished draft paper.

Duľzon, Andrei P. 1959a. ‘Ketskie toponimy Zapadnoj Sibiri’. Učenye zapiski Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogičeskogo instituta 18: 91-111.

Dyakonov, V. M. (2012). Ceramics of the Ulakhan-Segelennyakh culture, early bronze age, Yakutia. Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia, 40(4), 106-115.

[Dybo (2007)] — А. В. Дыбо. Хронология тюркских языков и лингвистические контакты ранних тюрков. М.: Восточная литература, 2007. С. 766– 811. [A. V. Dybo. Khronologiia tiurkskikh iazykov i lingvisticheskie kontakty rannikh tiurkov. [Chronology of Turkic languages and linguistic contacts of the early Turks]. Moscow: Oriental Literature 2007. P. 766–811].

[Dybo (2008)] — Дыбо, А. В. (2008). Материальный быт ранних тюрок. Жилище. In Природное окружение и материальная культура пратюркских народов (pp. 219-272).

Dybo, A.V. (2014) Early contacts of Turks and problems of Proto-Turkic reconstruction // Tatarica: Language 2, 2014. P. 7–17.

[Dybo & Normanskaja (2012)] — А. В. Дыбо, Ю. В. Норманская. К древнейшим самодийско-тунгусским лексическим связям (на материале слов, описывающих фауну). [A. V. Dybo, Iu. V. Normanskaia. K drevneishim samodiisko-tungusskim leksicheskim sviaziam (na materiale slov, opisyvayushchikh faunu). [On the most ancient Samoyed-Tungus lexical connections (based on words describing the fauna)]] // B. Kellner-Heinkele, E. V. Boykova, B. Hauer (eds.). Man and Nature in the Altaic World. Proceedings of the 49th Permanent International Altaistic Conference, Berlin, July 30-Aug. 4, 2006. Studien zu Sprache, Geschichte und Kultur der Turkvölker, 12, Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag, 2012. P. 99–115.

Eriksson, T., & Janhunen, J. (2015). On the limnonyms khövsgöl and kosogol and their ethnic implications. Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia, 2015(2), 89-99.

Georg, S. (2008). Yeniseic languages and the Siberian linguistic area. Studies in Slavic and General Linguistics, 33, 151-168.

Golden, P. B. (2006). Some Thoughts on the Origins of the Turks and the Shaping of the Turkic Peoples. Contact and exchange in the ancient world, 136-157.

Golden, P. B. (2011). Studies on the Peoples and Cultures of the Eurasian Steppes. Edited by Hriban, Cătălin. Ed. Acad. Române.

[Gusev (2020)] – Гусев, В. Ю. (2020). Этимологические заметки по этнонимии Нижнего Енисея. Вопросы ономастики. 2020. Том 17.№ 2, 59-74.

Häkkinen, J. (2012). Early contacts between Uralic and Yukaghir. Per Urales ad Ori-entem: Iter polyphonicum multilinguae, 91-101.

Hanks, B. K., Epimakhov, A. V., & Renfrew, A. C. (2007). Towards a refined chronology for the Bronze Age of the southern Urals, Russia. Antiquity, 81(312), 353-367.

Helimski, Eugen. Einige Angaben zur Toponymie und Ethnonymie des sajansamojedischen Siedlungsgebietes aus den Jahren 1739–1740 bei GF Mueller. Europa et Sibiria. Beiträge zu Sprache und Kultur der kleineren finnougrischen, samojedischen und paläosibirschen Völker. Gedenkband für Wolfgang Veenker. Veröffentlichungen der Societas Uralo-Altaica, 1999, vol. 5, p. 181-189.

Hyllested, A. (2009). „Internal reconstruction vs. external comparison. The case of the Indo-Uralic laryngeals “. Internal Reconstruction in Indo-European. Methods, Results, and Problems, 111-136.

Janhunen, J. (1981). Korean vowel system in North Asian perspective. Han-geul, 172, 129-146.

Janhunen, J. (2012). Etymological and ethnohistorical aspects of the Yenisei. Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia (SEC), 17(1), 67-87.

[Kaksin, A. D. (2018)] Каксин, А. Д. (2018). ГИДРОНИМЫ ХАКАСИИ В СВЕТЕ ДАННЫХ О ЯЗЫКОВЫХ СЕМЬЯХ (ЕНИСЕЙСКОЙ, УРАЛЬСКОЙ, АЛТАЙСКОЙ). Томский журнал лингвистических и антропологических исследований, (1), 41-48.

[Kaksin, A. D. (2019)] Каксин, А. Д. (2019). Топонимическая система как ресурс изучения древней истории региона (на примере Хакасии). Вопросы ономастики. 2019. Том 16.№ 1, 16(1), 213-221.

Kallio, P. (2001). Phonetic Uralisms in Indo-European? In: Christian Carpelan, Asko Parpola & Petteri Koskikallio (eds.), Early Contacts between Uralic and Indo-European: Linguistic and Archaeological Considerations, pp. 221-234. Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 242. Helsinki.

Kallio, P. (2002). Prehistoric Contacts between Indo-European and Uralic. In Proceedings of the thirteenth annual UCLA Indo-European conference (pp. 29-44).

Kallio, P. (2004). Tocharian loanwords in Samoyed. Etymologie, Entlehnungen und Entwicklungen. Festschrift für Jorma Koivulehto zum 70. Geburtstag, 129-137.

Khabtagaeva, B. (2015a). Some remarks on Turkic elements of Mongolic origin in Yeniseian. Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia (SEC), 20(2), 111-126.

[Khabtagaeva, B. (2015b)] — Хабтагаева, Б. (2015). Об алтайских элементах в енисейских языках. Acta Linguistica Petropolitana. Труды института лингвистических исследований, 11(3).

Khabtagaeva, B. (2015c). Compounds of Turkic origin in Yeniseian. Turkic Languages 19, 128-146.

Khabtagaeva, B. (2017). Tungusic loanwords in Yeniseian language. Studia Uralo-altaica, 51, 75-88.

Khabtagaeva, B. (2018). Some notes on kinship terminology in Yeniseian. Studia Uralo-altaica, 52, 47-56.

Kim-Maloney, A. (2004). Shared Selkup-Ket spiritual terminology. Languages and prehistory of Central Siberia. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 169-178.

Ko, S., Joseph, A., & Whitman, J. (2014). Comparative consequences of the tongue root harmony analysis for proto-Tungusic, proto-Mongolic, and proto-Korean. Paradigm change. The Transeurasian languages and beyond, 141-176.

Koryakova, L., & Epimakhov, A. V. (2014). The Urals and western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron ages. Cambridge University Press.

[Kovtun & Neskorov (2015)] – Ковтун, И. В., & Нескоров, А. В. (2015). Хронология и мифология андроновских сосудов с подквадратным устьем. Вестник археологии, антропологии и этнографии, (1 (28)).

Kuzʹmina, E. E. (2007). The origin of the Indo-Iranians (Vol. 3). Brill.

Legrand, S. (2006). The emergence of the Scythians. Bronze Age to Iron Age in South Siberia. The Emergence of the Karasuk Culture. Antiquity, 80(310), 843-879.

Lubotsky, A., & Starostin, S. (2011). Turkic and Chinese loan words in Tocharian (pp. 257-270). De Gruyter Mouton.

Maloletko, A.M. 2000. Drevnie narody Sibiri, t. II. Kety. Tomsk: Tomskij gosudarstvennyj univerzitet.

Marchenko, Z. V., Svyatko, S. V., Molodin, V. I., Grishin, A. E., & Rykun, M. P. (2017). Radiocarbon chronology of complexes with Seima-Turbino type objects (Bronze Age) in southwestern Siberia. Radiocarbon, 59(5), 1381.

[Matveev (1971)] — Матвеев, А. К. (1971). Из истории изучения субстратной топонимики русского Севера. Вопросы топономастики. 1971. Вып. 5, 7-34.

Nefedov, A. (2015). Clause linkage in Ket. LOT. Full text at Leiden University.

[Nemirovskij (2017)] — Немировский, А. А. (2017). Новые лингвистические результаты МА Живлова и подтверждение ымыяхтахского соотнесения (пра) юкагиров. In Фольклор палеоазиатских народов (pp. 59-70).

[Nemirovskij (2019)] — Немировский, А. А. (2019). Юкагирская атрибуция древнесибирских гидронимов на-мба/мбу/мбэ и вопросы этнолингвогенеза. In Языки коренных народов как фактор устойчивого развития Арктики (pp. 227-232).

Nikolaeva, I. (2006). A historical dictionary of Yukaghir. In: Trends in Linguistics. Documentation [TiLDOC], Vol. 25. Walter de Gruyter.

Nikolaeva, I. (2020). Yukaghir morphology in a historical and comparative perspective. Lincom GmbH.

Outram, A. K., Polyakov, A., Gromov, A., Moiseyev, V., Weber, A. W., Bazaliiskii, V. I., & Goriunova, O. I. (2018). Archaeological supplement B to Damgaard et al. 2018: discussion of the archaeology of Central Asian and East Asian Neolithic to Bronze Age hunter-gatherers and early pastoralists, including consideration of horse domestication.

Parpola, A. (2012). Formation of the Indo-European and Uralic (Finno-Ugric) language families in the light of archaeology: Revised and integrated ‘total’correlations. A linguistic map of prehistoric Northern Europe, 119-184.

Peyrot, M. (2018). Tocharian agricultural terminology: Between inheritance and language contact. Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph Series, 242-277.

Peyrot, M. (2019). The deviant typological profile of the Tocharian branch of Indo-European may be due to Uralic substrate influence. Indo-European Linguistics, 7(1), 72-121.

Piispanen, P. (2013). The Uralic-Yukaghiric connection revisited: Sound correspondences of geminate clusters. Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja, 2013(94), 165-197.

Piispanen, P. S. (2015). Extensive borrowing of reindeer terminology in north-eastern Siberia. Turkic Languages, 19, 240-258.

Piispanen, P. S. (2018). Turkic lexical borrowings in Samoyed. Acta Linguistica Petropolitana. Труды института лингвистических исследований, 14(3).

Piispanen, P. S. (2019). Fauna loanwords in the Altai-Sayan region. Link at

Piispanen, P. S. (2019). Khabtagaeva, B. Language Contact in Siberia: Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic Loanwords in Yeniseian, Brill, Leiden-Boston, 2019. Journal of Old Turkic Studies, 3(2), 616-623.

Piispanen, P. S. (2019) Nikolaeva, I. Yukaghir Morphology in a Historical and Comparative Perspective, München: Lincom Europe, 2020, pp. 122, ISBN: 978-3862-900466. Journal of Old Turkic Studies, 5(1), 212-219.

Ponomareva, I. A., & Taçon, P. S. (2019). The Angara rock art style and the emergence of ethno‐cultural identity. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 38(1), 18-38.

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