Massive Migrations? The Impact of Recent aDNA Studies on our View of Third Millennium Europe

Thanks to Joshua Jonathan, I have discovered the paper Massive Migrations? The Impact of Recent aDNA Studies on our View of Third Millennium Europe, by Martin Furholt, European Journal of Archaeology (28 SEP 2017).

Abstract:

New human aDNA studies have once again brought to the forefront the role of mobility and migration in shaping social phenomena in European prehistory, processes that recent theoretical frameworks in archaeology have downplayed as an outdated explanatory notion linked to traditional culture history. While these new genetic data have provided new insights into the population history of prehistoric Europe, they are frequently interpreted and presented in a manner that recalls aspects of traditional culture-historical archaeology that were rightly criticized through the 1970s to the 1990s. They include the idea that shared material culture indicates shared participation in the same social group, or culture, and that these cultures constitute one-dimensional, homogeneous, and clearly bounded social entities. Since the new aDNA data are used to create vivid narratives describing ‘massive migrations’, the so-called cultural groups are once again likened to human populations and in turn revitalized as external drivers for socio-cultural change. Here, I argue for a more nuanced consideration of molecular data that more explicitly incorporates anthropologically informed mobility and migration models.

I was copying and pasting whole excerpts to post them here, but I think it is best to read the full paper.

yamna-corded-ware-bell-beaker
From the paper: “Simplified map showing the extent of the most important archaeological units of classification in the third millennium cal BC in Europe discussed in this text.”

It is a great summary of potential flaws of the current reasoning in genetic papers.

It should be a must-read for any serious geneticist involved in discussions on migrations, especially regarding archaeology in Indo-European studies.

As for the answers to the paper, well, unsurprisingly quite disappointing that of Haak, neither addressing the main flaw of their proposed “Yamna -> Corded Ware migration” model, nor taking the opportunity to evaluate other potential models fitting their findings of steppe ancestry in Corded Ware peoples, not even those directly suggested to them (like the expansion of Suvorovo-Novodanilovka chiefs).

NOTE: A funny thing about the paper is that, although published at the end of September, it does not take into account certain recent developments supporting Furholt’s doubts, such as the Esperstedt’s family, the new sample of Sredni Stog (and consequently the change in interpretations of outliers in Eneolithic Ukraine populations), or even the elevated steppe ancestry found in East Bell Beaker peoples. I guess Haak’s answer to all that would still be the same thorough argument: “meh, massive Indo-European migration Yamnaya -> Corded Ware is right”…

#EDIT (30 DEC 2017): Check out the interesting article by Bruce G. Trigger, referenced by John Hawks, about the question of descriptive vs. theoretical archaeologist vs. ethnologist/anthropologist from the 1950s to the 1980s. Interesting to see how today the new playboys in Academia, geneticists, are playing the archaeologist playing the ethnologist playing the linguist in Indo-European questions, and how we are living a historical debate on essential questions for the future of all these disciplines.

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What would have to happen for you to accept the “Corded Ware Kurgan” model?
Also, why do much darkness in your heart, chill out, you guys at AP are doing a magnificent job.

Carlos Quiles

Thanks for the nice comment about AP. I would accept the IE Corded Ware model with a reasonable framework, i.e. the appropriate linguistic model, the appropriate archaeological data, and anthropological migration model. I don’t like language guesstimates spanning 2,000 years before mainstream estimations, to support some long-lasting GAC/Sredni Stog connection, so I am not a fan of Kristiansen’s theory. Although a connection through Suvorovo-Novodanilovka chiefs makes it also possible. There are many potential situations where I would accept a sudden migration Yamna -> Corded Ware. It does not take much actually, I was quite a strong supporter in the past… Read more »

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What would have to happen for you to accept the “Corded Ware Kurgan” model?
Also, why do much darkness in your heart, chill out, you guys at AP are doing a magnificent job.

Joshua Jonathan
Joshua Jonathan

Hi Carlos,

Here’s another one: Tim Flohr Sørensen, “Archaeological Paradigms: Pendulum or Wrecking Ball?”

Joshua Jonathan
Joshua Jonathan

Hi Carlos,

Here’s another one: Tim Flohr Sørensen, “Archaeological Paradigms: Pendulum or Wrecking Ball?”

Joshua Jonathan
Joshua Jonathan

Hi Carlos,

Semenov & BUlat (2016), “On Localization of Ancient Bearers of Y-DNA R1a Haplotype in Eastern Europe Neolitic Cultures. Part III. New Findings Support the Comb Ware («Pontic
Impresso») Version”:

“In our previous works (Semenov, Bulat, 2016, Semenov, Bulat, 2016a) we associate the
Neolithic distribution of pre-Corded Ware R1a1 bearers with Comb Pottery area from Pontic
Region to the Baikal Lake. Also we noticed, that according to F. Kortlandt’s framework, that
process could be the initial stage of the dispersal of Proto-Indo-Uralic and Altaic super families.”

I didn’t read it yet, but this sounds like your kind of stuff.

Joshua Jonathan

Joe Flood
Joe Flood

Sorry Carlos but your English and your expression is too bad for me to understand what you are talking about. I find it very hard to take any of this admixture stuff seriously given the poor quality of ancient samples and the statistically dubious nature of both binary PCA and the ADMIXTURE algorithm.I will send you a link to my draft R1a paper which in many respects gives an entirely different explanation fitting the existing facts as I see them