Genomic history of Northern Eurasians includes East-West and North-South gradients

Open Access article on modern populations (including ancient samples), Between Lake Baikal and the Baltic Sea: genomic history of the gateway to Europe, by Triska et al., BMC Genetics 18(Suppl 1):110, 2017.

Abstract:

Background
The history of human populations occupying the plains and mountain ridges separating Europe from Asia has been eventful, as these natural obstacles were crossed westward by multiple waves of Turkic and Uralic-speaking migrants as well as eastward by Europeans. Unfortunately, the material records of history of this region are not dense enough to reconstruct details of population history. These considerations stimulate growing interest to obtain a genetic picture of the demographic history of migrations and admixture in Northern Eurasia.

Results
We genotyped and analyzed 1076 individuals from 30 populations with geographical coverage spanning from Baltic Sea to Baikal Lake. Our dense sampling allowed us to describe in detail the population structure, provide insight into genomic history of numerous European and Asian populations, and significantly increase quantity of genetic data available for modern populations in region of North Eurasia. Our study doubles the amount of genome-wide profiles available for this region.

We detected unusually high amount of shared identical-by-descent (IBD) genomic segments between several Siberian populations, such as Khanty and Ket, providing evidence of genetic relatedness across vast geographic distances and between speakers of different language families. Additionally, we observed excessive IBD sharing between Khanty and Bashkir, a group of Turkic speakers from Southern Urals region. While adding some weight to the “Finno-Ugric” origin of Bashkir, our studies highlighted that the Bashkir genepool lacks the main “core”, being a multi-layered amalgamation of Turkic, Ugric, Finnish and Indo-European contributions, which points at intricacy of genetic interface between Turkic and Uralic populations. Comparison of the genetic structure of Siberian ethnicities and the geography of the region they inhabit point at existence of the “Great Siberian Vortex” directing genetic exchanges in populations across the Siberian part of Asia.

EEHG-CHG-Neolithic_Farmer-ANE
f3 values to estimate (a) Eastern European Hunter-Gatherer, b Neolithic Farmer, c Caucasus hunter-gatherer, and d) Mal’ta (Ancient North Eurasian) ancestry in modern humans

Slavic speakers of Eastern Europe are, in general, very similar in their genetic composition. Ukrainians, Belarusians and Russians have almost identical proportions of Caucasus and Northern European components and have virtually no Asian influence. We capitalized on wide geographic span of our sampling to address intriguing question about the place of origin of Russian Starovers, an enigmatic Eastern Orthodox Old Believers religious group relocated to Siberia in seventeenth century. A comparative reAdmix analysis, complemented by IBD sharing, placed their roots in the region of the Northern European Plain, occupied by North Russians and Finno-Ugric Komi and Karelian people. Russians from Novosibirsk and Russian Starover exhibit ancestral proportions close to that of European Eastern Slavs, however, they also include between five to 10 % of Central Siberian ancestry, not present at this level in their European counterparts.

russian-uralic-turkicadmixture
Admixture proportions in studied populations, K = 6. Populations from the Extended dataset. Abbreviated population codes: NSK – Russians from Novosibirsk; STV -Starover Russians; ARK: Bashkirs from Arkhangelskiy district; BRZ – Bashkirs from Burzyansky district

Conclusions
Our project has patched the hole in the genetic map of Eurasia: we demonstrated complexity of genetic structure of Northern Eurasians, existence of East-West and North-South genetic gradients, and assessed different inputs of ancient populations into modern populations.

Featured image, from the article: “Departures from the expected IBD. Shown populations exceed the expected IBD sharing by more than two standard deviations.”

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2 thoughts on “Genomic history of Northern Eurasians includes East-West and North-South gradients

  1. Wow, they omitted Yamna amixture, which plots with volga-Ural people.

    we should see admixtures of 2015 Allentoft paper together:
    http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-URjkRNjfKts/VXtCMnsRqjI/AAAAAAAAKIM/hgcSUb39Ypo/s1600/nature14507-f3.jpg
    ->Iron age altai is clearly close to ANEs. And we can also know that dark blue (nganasan) and east asian gene does not appear at bronze age steppe.

    So if we remove light pink(east asian) and dark blue (yakut or nganasan), I think bashkir and volga people’s admixture close to ANE. So the bashir people is not just amalgamtion as author said. Marija Gimbutas clearly stated that the yamna culture is not related to modern European, but Volga ural people, which originated in East and South East. Yamna R1b is close only to bashkir, who has also M73. Moreover recently stone age mound kurgan was found in west siberia.

    Volga Ural and west siberians are genetically and anthropologically intermediate between caucasoid and mongloid, developing independently as third Eurasian.

    Anthropologist Dr. C loring brace Map clearly showed that cromagnon/ Up people/ american Indian/bronze greek has a tie, locating between european/middle east and East asian. Likewise East Hunter gatherer or late mesolithic/ early neolithic east European also belong to this zone, because top russian anthropologists were debating about whther they were mixed with caucasoid or intermediate between caucasoid and mongloid. I think modern Ural people are their descendents. Problem is many people try not to recognise Ural people to be intermediate, but mixed one.

  2. Wow, they omitted Yamna amixture, which plots with volga-Ural people.

    we should see admixtures of 2015 Allentoft paper together:
    http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-URjkRNjfKts/VXtCMnsRqjI/AAAAAAAAKIM/hgcSUb39Ypo/s1600/nature14507-f3.jpg
    ->Iron age altai is clearly close to ANEs. And we can also know that dark blue (nganasan) and east asian gene does not appear at bronze age steppe.

    So if we remove light pink(east asian) and dark blue (yakut or nganasan), I think bashkir and volga people’s admixture close to ANE. So the bashir people is not just amalgamtion as author said. Marija Gimbutas clearly stated that the yamna culture is not related to modern European, but Volga ural people, which originated in East and South East. Yamna R1b is close only to bashkir, who has also M73. Moreover recently stone age mound kurgan was found in west siberia.

    Volga Ural and west siberians are genetically and anthropologically intermediate between caucasoid and mongloid, developing independently as third Eurasian.

    Anthropologist Dr. C loring brace Map clearly showed that cromagnon/ Up people/ american Indian/bronze greek has a tie, locating between european/middle east and East asian. Likewise East Hunter gatherer or late mesolithic/ early neolithic east European also belong to this zone, because top russian anthropologists were debating about whther they were mixed with caucasoid or intermediate between caucasoid and mongloid. I think modern Ural people are their descendents. Problem is many people try not to recognise Ural people to be intermediate, but mixed one.

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