South-East Asia samples include shared ancestry with Jōmon


New paper (behind paywall) The prehistoric peopling of Southeast Asia, by McColl et al. (Science 2018) 361(6397):88-92 from a recent bioRxiv preprint.

Interesting is this apparently newly reported information including a female sample from the Ikawazu Jōmon of Japan ca. 570 BC (emphasis mine):

The two oldest samples — Hòabìnhians from Pha Faen, Laos [La368; 7950 with 7795 calendar years before the present (cal B.P.)] and Gua Cha, Malaysia (Ma911; 4415 to 4160 cal B.P.)—henceforth labeled “group 1,” cluster most closely with present-day Önge from the Andaman Islands and away from other East Asian and Southeast-Asian populations (Fig. 2), a pattern that differentiates them from all other ancient samples. We used ADMIXTURE (14) and fastNGSadmix (15) to model ancient genomes as mixtures of latent ancestry components (11). Group 1 individuals differ from the other Southeast Asian ancient samples in containing components shared with the supposed descendants of the Hòabìnhians: the Önge and the Jehai (Peninsular Malaysia), along with groups from India and Papua New Guinea.

We also find a distinctive relationship between the group 1 samples and the Ikawazu Jōmon of Japan (IK002). Outgroup f3 statistics (11, 16) show that group 1 shares the most genetic drift with all ancient mainland samples and Jōmon (fig. S12 and table S4). All other ancient genomes share more drift with present-day East Asian and Southeast Asian populations than with Jōmon (figs. S13 to S19 and tables S4 to S11). This is apparent in the fastNGSadmix analysis when assuming six ancestral components (K = 6) (fig. S11), where the Jōmon sample contains East Asian components and components found in group 1. To detect populations with genetic affinities to Jōmon, relative to present-day Japanese, we computed D statistics of the form D(Japanese, Jōmon; X, Mbuti), setting X to be different presentday and ancient Southeast Asian individuals (table S22). The strongest signal is seen when X=Ma911 and La368 (group 1 individuals), showing a marginally nonsignificant affinity to Jōmon (11). This signal is not observed with X = Papuans or Önge, suggesting that the Jōmon and Hòabìnhians may share group 1 ancestry (11).

Model for plausible migration routes into SEA. This schematic is based on ancestry patterns observed in the ancient genomes. Because we do not have ancient samples to accurately resolve how the ancestors of Jōmon and Japanese populations entered the Japanese archipelago, these migrations are represented by dashed arrows. A mainland component in Indonesia is depicted by the dashed red-green line. Gr, group; Kra, Kradai.

(…) Finally, the Jōmon individual is best-modeled as a mix between a population related to group 1/Önge and a population related to East Asians (Amis), whereas present-day Japanese can be modeled as a mixture of Jōmon and an additional East Asian component (Fig. 3 and fig. S29)

Interesting in relation to the oral communication of the SMBE O-03-OS02 Whole genome analysis of the Jomon remain reveals deep lineage of East Eurasian populations by Gakuuhari et al.:

Post late-Paleolithic hunter-gatherers lived throughout the Japanese archipelago, Jomonese, are thought to be a key to understanding the peopling history in East Asia. Here, we report a whole genome sequence (x1.85) of 2,500-year old female excavated from the Ikawazu shell-mound, unearthed typical remains of Jomon culture. The whole genome data places the Jomon as a lineage basal to contemporary and ancient populations of the eastern part of Eurasian continent, and supports the closest relationship with the modern Hokkaido Ainu. The results of ADMIXTURE show the Jomon ancestry is prevalent in present-day Nivkh, Ulchi, and people in the main-island Japan. By including the Jomon genome into phylogenetic trees, ancient lineages of the Kusunda and the Sherpa/Tibetan, early splitting from the rest of East Asian populations, is emerged. Thus, the Jomon genome gives a new insight in East Asian expansion. The Ikawazu shell-mound site locates on 34,38,43 north latitude, and 137,8, 52 east longitude in the central main-island of the Japanese archipelago, corresponding to a warm and humid monsoon region, which has been thought to be almost impossible to maintain sufficient ancient DNA for genome analysis. Our achievement opens up new possibilities for such geographical regions.


Complex history of dog origins and translocations in the Pacific revealed by ancient mitogenomes


Open access Complex history of dog (Canis familiaris) origins and translocations in the Pacific revealed by ancient mitogenomes, by Creig et al., Scientific Reports (2018).


Archaeological evidence suggests that dogs were introduced to the islands of Oceania via Island Southeast Asia around 3,300 years ago, and reached the eastern islands of Polynesia by the fourteenth century AD. This dispersal is intimately tied to human expansion, but the involvement of dogs in Pacific migrations is not well understood. Our analyses of seven new complete ancient mitogenomes and five partial mtDNA sequences from archaeological dog specimens from Mainland and Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific suggests at least three dog dispersal events into the region, in addition to the introduction of dingoes to Australia. We see an early introduction of dogs to Island Southeast Asia, which does not appear to extend into the islands of Oceania. A shared haplogroup identified between Iron Age Taiwanese dogs, terminal-Lapita and post-Lapita dogs suggests that at least one dog lineage was introduced to Near Oceania by or as the result of interactions with Austronesian language speakers associated with the Lapita Cultural Complex. We did not find any evidence that these dogs were successfully transported beyond New Guinea. Finally, we identify a widespread dog clade found across the Pacific, including the islands of Polynesia, which likely suggests a post-Lapita dog introduction from southern Island Southeast Asia.

A map of Southeast Asia and the Pacific showing the source location of the specimens and associated haplogroups (assignment to haplogroup follows Duleba and colleagues) and the median-joining network. The boundary between Near and Remote Oceania is also shown. Symbols identify the type of sequence: filled circle, ancient mitogenome; half circle, partial ancient sequence; hollow circle, modern mitogenome. Node colours represent the haplogroup, grey, A; red, A2b2, green, A2b3; yellow, A4’5; blue, B.


The dispersal of dogs across the Pacific is inseparably linked to the relationships between dogs and people. Unlike movement across continental landmasses, Pacific dogs must have been transported by people across the waters that separate islands. The ancient mitogenomes sequenced from archaeological dog specimens presented here offer a novel series of individual insights into the history of dog translocation from Southeast Asia as it occurred prior to the influence of modern European dog breeds. We generated seven mitogenomes and five partial sequences from ancient MSEA, ISEA and Pacific dogs, and four modern dingoes. Despite the small sample size, our results reveal levels of complexity and discontinuity in the introduction and movement of dogs, which are mirrored in the archaeological and linguistic evidence, suggesting at least three introductions of dogs to the wider Pacific region, in addition to the earlier appearance of the dingo in Australia. Further mtDNA studies of ancient dogs and modern village populations throughout the region may contribute additional data that can be used to evaluate these hypothesised dispersals. Autosomal and Y-chromosome analyses also have the potential to generate additional information about dog dispersal, which could reveal different dispersal signatures based on sex, or phenotypic characteristics, though the environmental conditions in the region are not particularly conducive to aDNA preservation.

Our molecular genetic analyses reveal one of the earliest dogs present in ISEA around 3,000 years ago from Timor-Leste possesses a mtDNA lineage not found elsewhere in the region. We also found similarities between mtDNA of modern dingoes and NGSDs and an ancient Taiwanese sequence, which supports previous observations about possible links between Y-chromosome markers of modern dingoes and a modern Taiwanese sample. More work is required to address whether these connections reflect the genetic diversity of a shared ancestral population in mainland China, or attest to a currently unknown dispersal event linking the two populations. Archaeological evidence for the introduction of dogs to Oceania as part of the LCC is extremely limited. Nonetheless, we demonstrate that mitogenomes from dogs in terminal Lapita and post-Lapita levels of archaeological sites along the south coast of mainland New Guinea also show affinities with an Iron Age dog specimen from Taiwan, raising the possibility of at least one introduction of dogs during Austronesian expansions ultimately from the north. Finally, we have identified a major late introduction of dogs across the islands of Oceania beginning around 2,000 years ago, which appears to have originated in MSEA, not Taiwan, and culminated in the establishment of dog populations in initial colonisation-era sites throughout East Polynesia.

Molecular phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood method, implemented in MEGA71. The evolutionary history shown inferred by using the maximum likelihood method based on the Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano model. The tree with the highest log likelihood (-25257.5243) is shown. The percentage of trees in which the associated taxa clustered together is shown next to the branches. Initial tree(s) for the heuristic search were obtained automatically by applying Neighbor-Join and BioNJ algorithms to a matrix of pairwise distances estimated using the Maximum Composite Likelihood (MCL) approach, and then selecting the topology with superior log likelihood value. A discrete Gamma distribution was used to model evolutionary rate differences among sites (5 categories (+G, parameter = 0.0500)). The rate variation model allowed for some sites to be evolutionarily invariable ([+I], 0.0010% sites). The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of substitutions per site. The analysis involved 45 nucleotide sequences. There were a total of 16774 positions in the final dataset.

Also related, open access Elucidating biogeographical patterns in Australian native canids using genome wide SNPs, by Cairns et al., PLOS One (2018).


Dingoes play a strong role in Australia’s ecological framework as the apex predator but are under threat from hybridization and agricultural control programs. Government legislation lists the conservation of the dingo as an important aim, yet little is known about the biogeography of this enigmatic canine, making conservation difficult. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA studies show evidence of population structure within the dingo. Here, we present the data from Illumina HD canine chip genotyping for 23 dingoes from five regional populations, and five New Guinea Singing Dogs to further explore patterns of biogeography using genome-wide data. Whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data supported the presence of three distinct dingo populations (or ESUs) subject to geographical subdivision: southeastern (SE), Fraser Island (FI) and northwestern (NW). These ESUs should be managed discretely. The FI dingoes are a known reservoir of pure, genetically distinct dingoes. Elevated inbreeding coefficients identified here suggest this population may be genetically compromised and in need of rescue; current lethal management strategies that do not consider genetic information should be suspended until further data can be gathered. D statistics identify evidence of historical admixture or ancestry sharing between southeastern dingoes and South East Asian village dogs. Conservation efforts on mainland Australia should focus on the SE dingo population that is under pressure from domestic dog hybridization and high levels of lethal control. Further data concerning the genetic health, demographics and prevalence of hybridization in the SE and FI dingo populations is urgently needed to develop evidence based conservation and management strategies.

Principal components analysis (PCA) based upon filtered whole genome SNP genotypes (58,512 sites) for 23 dingoes, 5 NGSD, 8 Borneo village dogs, 9 Vietnam village dogs, 10 Portugal village dogs and 8 Australian cattle dogs (‘Dataset B’). Colours represent population clusters: red for SE dingoes, purple for FI dingoes, blue for NW dingoes, dark green for NGSD, light green for Borneo village dogs, orange for Vietnam village dogs, yellow for Portugal village dogs and grey for Australian cattle dogs. (A) PC 1 versus PC 2. (B) PC 1 versus PC 3.

As I said in a previous post, the study of dogs may be useful to trace population migrations and to assess strong cultural contacts. Especially, as in this case, when crossbreeding among cultures is not easy…


Mitogenomes from Thailand offer insights into maternal genetic history of mainland South-East Asia

Open access New insights from Thailand into the maternal genetic history of Mainland Southeast Asia, by Kutanan et al. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2018) 26:898–911

Abstract (emphasis mine):

Tai-Kadai (TK) is one of the major language families in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), with a concentration in the area of Thailand and Laos. Our previous study of 1234 mtDNA genome sequences supported a demic diffusion scenario in the spread of TK languages from southern China to Laos as well as northern and northeastern Thailand. Here we add an additional 560 mtDNA genomes from 22 groups, with a focus on the TK-speaking central Thai people and the Sino-Tibetan speaking Karen. We find extensive diversity, including 62 haplogroups not reported previously from this region. Demic diffusion is still a preferable scenario for central Thais, emphasizing the expansion of TK people through MSEA, although there is also some support for gene flow between central Thai and native Austroasiatic speaking Mon and Khmer. We also tested competing models concerning the genetic relationships of groups from the major MSEA languages, and found support for an ancestral relationship of TK and Austronesian-speaking groups.

Map showing sample locations and haplogroup distributions. Blue stars indicate the 22 presently studied populations (Tai-Kadai, Austroasiatic, and Sino-Tibetan groups) while red and green circles represent Tai-Kadai and Austroasiatic populations from the previous study [7]. Population abbreviations are in Supplementary Table S1

Interesting excerpts:

Finally, we used simulations to test hypotheses concerning the genetic relationships of groups belonging to different language families. We found that Starosta’s model [11] provided the best fit to the mtDNA data; however, Sagart’s model [9, 10] was also highly supported. These two models both postulate a close linguistic affinity between TK and AN. Although genetic relatedness between TK and AN groups has been previously studied [7, 46, 47], to our knowledge this is the first study to use demographic simulations to select the best-fitting model. Our results support the genetic relatedness of TK and AN groups, which might reflect a postulated shared ancestry among the proto-Austronesian populations of coastal East Asia [48].

Specifically, the best-fitting model suggests that after separation of the prehistoric TK from AN stocks around 5–6 kya in Southeast China, the TK spread southward throughout MSEA around 1–2 kya by a demic diffusion process, accompanied by population growth but with at most minor admixture with the autochthonous AA groups. Meanwhile, the prehistorical AN ancestors entered Taiwan and dispersed southward throughout ISEA, with these two expansions later meeting in western ISEA. The lack of mtDNA haplogroups associated with the expansion out of Taiwan in our Thai/Lao samples has two possible explanations: either the Out of Taiwan expansion did not reach MSEA (at least, in the area of present-day Thailand and Laos); or, if the prehistoric AN migrated through this area, their mtDNA lineages do not survive in modern Thai/Lao populations. Ancient DNA studies in MSEA would further clarify this issue. Moreover, although mtDNA analyses are informative in elucidating genetic perspectives in geographically and linguistically related populations, they have an obvious limitation in that they only provide insights into the maternal history of populations. Future studies of Y chromosomal and genome-wide data will provide further insights into the genetic history of Thai/Lao populations and the role of factors such as post-marital residence patterns and migration in shaping the genetic structure of the region.

Starosta’s chapter referred to in the paper is Proto-East Asian and the origin and dispersal of the languages of East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific.


Ancient genomes document multiple waves of migration in south-east Asian prehistory


Open access preprint at bioRxiv Ancient genomes document multiple waves of migration in Southeast Asian prehistory, by Lipson, Cheronet, Mallick, et al. (2018).

Abstract (emphasis mine):

Southeast Asia is home to rich human genetic and linguistic diversity, but the details of past population movements in the region are not well known. Here, we report genome-wide ancient DNA data from thirteen Southeast Asian individuals spanning from the Neolithic period through the Iron Age (4100-1700 years ago). Early agriculturalists from Man Bac in Vietnam possessed a mixture of East Asian (southern Chinese farmer) and deeply diverged eastern Eurasian (hunter-gatherer) ancestry characteristic of Austroasiatic speakers, with similar ancestry as far south as Indonesia providing evidence for an expansive initial spread of Austroasiatic languages. In a striking parallel with Europe, later sites from across the region show closer connections to present-day majority groups, reflecting a second major influx of migrants by the time of the Bronze Age.

Schematics of admixture graph results. (A) Wider phylogenetic context. (B) Details of the Austroasiatic clade. Branch lengths are not to scale, and the order of the two events on the Nicobarese lineage in (B) is not well determined (Supplementary Text).

Featured image, from the article: “Overview of samples. (A) Locations and dates of ancient individuals. Overlapping positions are shifted slightly for visibility. (B) PCA with East and Southeast Asians. We projected the ancient samples onto axes computed using the present-day populations (with the exception of Mlabri, who were projected instead due to their large population-speci c drift). Present-day colors indicate language family affiliation: green, Austroasiatic; blue, Austronesian; orange, Hmong-Mien; black, Sino-Tibetan; magenta, Tai-Kadai.”

See also: