Interlinear Homer, Iliad 1:1-21 in Mycenaean & Indo-European

This is a Proto-Indo-European translation of the first lines of the first book I did some time ago. Fernando López-Menchero was kind enough to help with comments and corrections.

For relevant comments and alternative translations for each line, as well as other modern translations, see the Google Sheet.

NOTE. If you are interested in collaborating by editing the document, please contact me.

The structure of the interlinear texts below is as follows:

1. The Ancient Greek version is copied verbatim from Perseus Digital Library, including links to each word to facilitate immediate reference when necessary.
2. The Mycenaean version is slightly modified from A Mycenaean Iliad, by Rob Wiseman. The original version appears in the Google Sheet with corresponding notes about the changes.
3. The Proto-Indo-European version (in bold) is presented following the Modern Indo-European writing system, but with a more phonetic transliteration for those not used to it; e.g. adding all accents (instead of only those not second-to-last), adding some marks for connectors (following Wiseman’s example), and avoiding the use of q for * and c for *. For the lack of palatovelars and the vocalic outputs after laryngeal loss, see Fernando’s MIE Guidebook and Syntax. For the version with the (less cumbersome) MIE writing system, see the Google Sheet.
4. The English version is from Murray (1924), also copied from Perseus. For other translations, such as Latin, German, and Russian, check out the Google Sheet.

Homer, Iliad 1:1-21

¹μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος
Mānin aweide tʰeha Pelewadeohjo Akʰilēwos
Éisām séngʷʱe deiwā́ Pélewosjo Agʱiléwos

The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus’ son, Achilles,

²οὐλομένην, μυρί᾽ Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε᾽ ἔθηκε,
olomenān, hā=muria Akʰaiwois alges’ etʰēke,
nokéjomnām, sā=gʱéslijāns Agʱaiwóbʱos edúnāns dʱḗt,

that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans,

³πολλὰς δ᾽ ἰφθίμους ψυχὰς Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν
polewas=de ipʰtʰimons psūkʰans Awidāi prosapse
péluns=kʷe nertóns ətménn̥s Ń̥widei pro≈méitst

and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls

ἡρώων, αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν
hērōwōn, autons=de welōra teukʰe kunsi
nérōm, swé=kʷe lábʱura kʷr̥néut kwn̥bʱós

of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs

οἰωνοῖσί τε πᾶσι, Διὸς δ᾽ ἐτελείετο βουλή,
oiwonoihi=kʷe patsi, Djes=de ekʷeleeto gʷōlnā́,
əwéibʱos=kʷe óljobʱos, Diwós=kʷe piplë̄to wéltis,

and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment,

ἐξ οὗ δὴ τὰ πρῶτα διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε
eks=hohjo dē tā≈prōwata dwiahistātān erisante
póskʷē=jod prǟwa (d)wis≈stā́tām bʱegʱlṓu

from the time when first they parted in strife

Ἀτρεΐδης τε ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν καὶ δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς.
Atrewidā(s)=kʷe wanaks andrōn kas diwos Akʰileus.
N̥tr̥sujós=kʷe, rḗgs dʱgʱménom átkʷe diwijós Agʱiléus

Atreus’ son, king of men, and brilliant Achilles.

τίς τ᾽ ἄρ σφωε θεῶν ἔριδι ξυνέηκε μάχεσθαι;
kʷis=kʷe ar=spʰōwe tʰehōn eridei ksunejēke makʰestʰai;
kʷískʷe ar=ámbʱōu deiwṓm pŕ̥tei kom≈wḗgʱst streudédʱjom;

Who then of the gods was it that brought these two together to contend?

Λητοῦς καὶ Διὸς υἱός: γὰρ βασιλῆϊ χολωθεὶς
Lātojos kas Diwos hujos: jo=gar gʷasilēwi kʰolotʰēn(t)s
Lātijós Diwós=kʷe sūnús: so=gar rḗgei kr̥díjomnos

The son of Leto and Zeus; for he in anger against the king

¹⁰νοῦσον ἀνὰ στρατὸν ὄρσε κακήν, ὀλέκοντο δὲ λαοί,
noswon ona stroton orse kakān, olekonto=de lāwoi,
áigim əná kórjei órt upélām, məríjeto=kʷe téutā,

roused throughout the host an evil pestilence, and the people began to perish,

¹¹οὕνεκα τὸν Χρύσην ἠτίμασεν ἀρητῆρα
oju=eneka ton Kʰrūsān aekʷīmase arwātēra
jódkʷid Kʰrū́sãi n̥dékos bʱlā́menei dʱḗt

because upon the priest Chryses the son of Atreus had wrought dishonour.

chryses-agamemnon-louvre
Chryses attempting to ransom his daughter Chryseis from Agamemnon. Side A of an Apulian red-figure volute-crater, ca. 360 BC–350 BC, found in Taranto. Photograph by Jastrow (2006) on Wikipedia.

¹²Ἀτρεΐδης: γὰρ ἦλθε θοὰς ἐπὶ νῆας Ἀχαιῶν
Atrewidās: jo=gar elutʰe tʰowans ipi≈nāwas Akʰaiwōn
N̥tr̥sujós: só=gar ludʱét ōkúns epi≈nā́wn̥s Agʱaiwṓm

For he had come to the swift ships of the Achaeans

¹³λυσόμενός τε θύγατρα φέρων τ᾽ ἀπερείσι᾽ ἄποινα,
lūsomenos=kʷe tʰugatra pʰirōns=kʷe apirwasjā apokʷoinā,
lū́somnos=kʷe dʱugtérm̥ bʱéronts=kʷe n̥perwn̥tóm apokʷrójom,

to free his daughter, bearing ransom past counting; and

¹⁴στέμματ᾽ ἔχων ἐν χερσὶν ἑκηβόλου Ἀπόλλωνος
stipʰmota hekʰons in=kʰehrsi (h)wekagʷolohjo Apollōnos
grendjā̆ ségʱonts gʱesr̥sí dūrosupā́jonts Apóljonos

in his hands he held the wreaths of Apollo who strikes from afar,

¹⁵χρυσέῳ ἀνὰ σκήπτρῳ, καὶ λίσσετο πάντας Ἀχαιούς,
kʰrūseōi ona skāptrōi, kas lisseto pantas Akʰaiwons,
gʱl̥tnói (əna) skā́poi; jókʷe gʷʱédʱjet óljons Agʱaiwóns,

on a staff of gold; and he implored all the Achaeans,

¹⁶Ἀτρεΐδα δὲ μάλιστα δύω, κοσμήτορε λαῶν:
Atrewidā=de molista duwō, kosmētore lāwōn:
N̥tr̥sujṓu au plḗistom dwṓu, teutawəlṓu:

but most of all the two sons of Atreus, the marshallers of the people

¹⁷Ἀτρεΐδαι τε καὶ ἄλλοι ἐϋκνήμιδες Ἀχαιοί,
Atrewidāi=kʷe kas alloi ehuknāmides Akʰaiwoi,
N̥tr̥sujṓs=kʷe áljōs súknǟmejes Agʱaiwṓs,

Sons of Atreus, and other well-greaved Achaeans,

¹⁸ὑμῖν μὲν θεοὶ δοῖεν Ὀλύμπια δώματ᾽ ἔχοντες
umi≈men tʰehoi dojen Olumpja dōmata hekʰontes
usméi≈ke deiwṓs dəijént Ulúmpjāi domowéntes

to you may the gods who have homes upon Olympus grant that

¹⁹ἐκπέρσαι Πριάμοιο πόλιν, εὖ δ᾽ οἴκαδ᾽ ἱκέσθαι:
ek=pirsai Prjamohjo polin, ehu=de woikade hikestʰai:
wәltr̥ Paríjamuwosjo pólim, sú=kʷe weikm̥ wr̥tódʱjom:

you sack the city of Priam, and return safe to your homes;

²⁰παῖδα δ᾽ ἐμοὶ λύσαιτε φίλην, τὰ δ᾽ ἄποινα δέχεσθαι,
pawida=de emoy lusayte pʰilān, ta=de apokʷoinā dekestʰai,
pútlom=kʷe mégʱei lúsīte prijóm, tóm=kʷe apokʷrójom déksesdʱwe,

but my dear child release to me, and accept the ransom

²¹ἁζόμενοι Διὸς υἱὸν ἑκηβόλον Ἀπόλλωνα.
jazomenoi Diwos hujon hwekagʷolon Apollōna.
jágjomnōs Diwós sūnúm dūrosupā́jontm̥ Apóljonom.

out of reverence for the son of Zeus, Apollo who strikes from afar.

 

For discussion on specific expressions and words, use preferably our Facebook Modern Indo-European group.

Featured image from Wikipedia. “Detail from an attic black-figure neck amphora with scene from the Iliad ca 540-520 BCE attributed to the Hattat painter. The original public domain image was uploaded by user:aishaabdel – this version of the image has been white balanced and the background has been changed to solid white.”

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