Bai (2020): Paleolithic genetic link between Southern China and Mainland SE

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      Carlos Quiles

      Bai, F., Zhang, X., Ji, X. et al. Paleolithic genetic link between Southern China and Mainland Southeast Asia revealed by ancient mitochondrial genomes. J Hum Genet (2020).


      The genetic history of Southern East Asians is not well-known, especially prior to the Neolithic period. To address this, we successfully sequenced two complete mitochondrial genomes of 11,000-year-old human individuals from Southern China, thus generating the oldest ancient DNA sequences from this area. Integrating published mitochondrial genomes, we characterized M71d, a new subhaplogroup of haplogroup M71. Our results suggest a possible early migration between Southern China and mainland Southeast Asia by at least 22,000 BP.


      a Geographic sampling locations of Longlin and QSYDD from Southern China;

      b phylogenetic tree of the new M71d lineage. This tree includes 17 complete mtDNA sequences and illustrates that QSYDD and Longlin are basal branches within M71d. The nucleotide positions of the sequences were scored relative to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) [8]. The deletions and insertions are shown as “del” and “ins”, respectively. Parallel mutations are indicated by ‘>’ and back mutations are underlined.

      c Median-joining network of haplogroup M71 with respect to 81 present-day complete mtDNA genomes (geographic location indicated by colors) and the nested clade of M71d that includes the two ancient sequences (indicated by red asterisk);

      d Left, phylogenetic tree of the haplogroup M71 using 2 ancient and 81 present-day complete mtDNA genomes (blue stars indicate haplotypes found in present-day Chinese samples). Right, Detailed tree of the new M71d clade, where its estimated coalescence age is 22,210 yBP (95% HPD, 14,337–31,515). Posterior values are shown. *Abbreviations for language family: Tai-Kadai (TK), Austroasiatic (AA), Sino-Tibetan (ST), Austronesian (AN)

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