Proto-Indo-European roots 2

From Indo-European Languages

This document is divided into four pieces due to its size: PIE roots 1, PIE roots 2, PIE roots 3 and PIE roots 4.

Contents

h₁, e/o

Root Meaning Derivatives
*H₁ar-mo- arm Osset. arm, Arm. armunk/armung, Lat. armus, OCS ramo, Goth. arms, Eng. earm/arm, Skr. irmas, Old Prussian irmo, Gm. aram/Arm, ON armr, Gk. arthron/
*H₁dont- (nom. *H₁dont-s, gen. *H₁dent-ós) tooth Lat. dentis, Gk. odous/donti, Welsh dant, Lith. dantis, Skr. dantam, Marathi /dat, Eng. tōþ/tooth, Gm. zand/Zahn, Goth. tunþus, Russ. desna, Welsh dant, Kamviri dut, Pers. /dandān, Kashmiri dãd, Ir. dét/déad, ON tǫ

nn, Osset. dændag

*H₁ed- to eat Lith. ėsti, Ltv. ēst, Old Prussian ist, Russ. jest', Polish jeść, Skr. ad, Av. ad, Arm. utel/udel, Hitt. at, Luw. ad-; az-, Palaic ata-, Lat. edō, Oscan edum, Gk. edō, Eng. etan/eat, Gm. essan/essen, ON eta, Goth. itan, Ir. esse/, Thrac. esko-, Toch. /yesti
*H₁edʰ- sharp Russ. jel', Lith. eglė, Ltv. egle, Lat. ebulus, Gaul. odocos, Old Prussian addle, Gm. attuh/, Polish jodła
*H₁eH₁ter- intestines Gk. ētor/, Ir. inathar/, Lat. uterus, ON ǽðr, Eng. ǣ

dder/, Gm. ādra/Ader

*H₁eH₂-ter- fire Arm. airel, Ir. áith/áith, Welsh odyn, Skr. atharvan, Av. ātarš, Pers. Āçiyādiya/ādar, Lat. āter, Umbrian atru, Oscan Aadíriis, Serb. vatra
*H₁ei- to go Lith. eiti, Ltv. iet, Old Prussian eit, Russ. idti, Polish iść, Goth. iddja, Eng. ēode/--, Skr. eti, Av. aēiti, Gk. eimi, Lat. ire, Umbrian ier, Oscan eítuns, Kamviri ie, Gaul. eimu, Toch. i/i, Ir. ethaim/, Pers. aitiy/, OCS idǫ

, Luw. i-

*H₁eibʰ- to copulate Gm. eiba/--, Skr. yabhati, Russ. jebat', Illyr. Oibalos, Gk. oiphō/, Polish jebać
*H₁el- elbow Gm. elina/elle, Gk. ōlenē, Arm. volok', Lith. uolektis, Ltv. olekts, Russ. lokot', Skr. ā

i, Welsh elin, Eng. eln/ell, Ir. uilin/uille, Goth. aleina, ON aln, Alb. llërë/llânë, Av. arəθna, Old Prussian woaltis, OCS pakŭtĭ, Polish łokieć, Pers. /āran

*H₁engʷ- gland Alb. angërr, Gk. adēn, Lat. inguen, ON ökkvinn
*H₁epero- boar Lith. Vepriai, Ltv. vepris, Gm. ebur/Eber, Eng. eofor/--, Russ. vepr', Polish wieprz, Skr. vapati, Lat. aper; vepres, Umbrian apruf, Old Prussian Weppren, Thrac. ebros, ON jǫ

furr

*H₁er- goat Arm. oroj/oroč, Lith. ėriukas, Ltv. jērs, Old Prussian eristian, Lat. ariēs, Umbrian erietu, Ir. heirp/earb, Gk. eriphos, Gm. irah/, OCS jarina
*H₁erH₁gʷo- pea Gk. orobos, Ir. orbaind/, Lat. ervum, Gm. arawīz/Erbse, ON ertr
*H₁es- (*H₁ésmi [1ps]) to be OCS jestĭ, Russ. est', Lith. esmi, Ltv. esmu, Old Prussian asmai, Gk. esti, Ir. am/, Skr. asti, Av. asti, Lat. est, Umbrian sent, Oscan súm, Eng. is/is, Arm. ē, Polish jest, Alb. është/âsht, Gm. ist/ist, Goth. ist, ON es, Hitt. asa, Lyc. es, Luw. as, Lyd. e-, Palaic aš-, Toch.

e/ ei, Pers. astiy/ast,

*H₁eu- to dress Av. aoθra, Russ. obut', Polish obuć, Lith. auti, Ltv. aut, Lat. exuo;induo,, Arm. aganum/akanum; aganim/akanim, Old Prussian auclo, Umbrian anovihimu, Ir. fuan/, Welsh gŵn, OCS obujǫ
*H₁euHdʰ-r̥- udder Lith. ūdruoju, Eng. ūder/udder, Gm. ūtir/Euter, ON jūgr, Gk. outhar/, Skr. ūdhar, Lat. ūber, Russ. vimja, Polish wymię
*H₁eus- to burn Alb. ushël, Lith. usnis, Ltv. usna, Lat. ūrō, Gk. heuō/, Gm. eimuria/, Eng. ǣ

merge/ember, ON usli, Skr. o ati,

*H₁ewegʷʰ- to praise Skr. vāghat, Av. raštarəvaġənti, Gk. eukhomai, Arm. gog/kok, Lat. vovēre, Umbrian vufetes
*H₁eǵʰi- hedgehog Russ. ëž, Lith. ežys, Ltv. ezis, Phryg. eksis, Gk. ekhinos, Gm. igil/Igel, Arm. ozni, Eng. igil/--, ON ígul, Osset. wyzyn, Polish jeż, Phryg. eksis, Alb. esh
*H₁eǵʰs out Lat. ex, Gk. eks, Gaul. ex-, Ir. ass/as, Russ. iz, Alb. jashtë, Oscan eh-, Umbrian ehe-, Lith. iž, Ltv. iz, Old Prussian is, Welsh a
*H₁eḱwo- horse Lat. equus, Toch. yuk/yakwe, Gaul. epos, Gk. hippos, Skr. aśva, Av. asva-, Lith. ašva, Old Prussian aswinan, Kamviri ušpa, Eng. eoh/--, Gm. ehwaz/--, Goth. aiƕ

tundi, ON iór, Hitt. aśuwas, Arm. ēš, Welsh ebol, Ir. ech/each, Thrac. esvas, Lyc. esbe-, Phryg. es', Pers. aspa/asb, Osset. jæfs/æfsæ, Venetic ekvon

*H₁nōm-n̥- name Toch. ñom/ñem, Lat. nōmen, Umbrian nome, Eng. nama/name, Gm. namo/Name, ON nafn, Goth. namo, Skr. nāman, Av. nąman, Gk. onoma, OCS imę, Russ. imja, Alb. emër/êmën, Ir. ainm/ainm, Welsh anu, Hitt. lāman, Kamviri nom, Pers. nāma/nām, Arm. anun, Polish imię, Old Prussian emnes
*H₁oH₁s- mouth Skr. ās;o

ha, Av. aosta, Lat. ōs, Lith. uosta, Ltv. osta, Russ. usta, Kamviri âša, Old Prussian austo, Eng. ōr/--, Hitt. aiš, ON oss

*H₁oH₁ḱ-u- quick Gk. ōkupous, Lat. ōcior, Welsh diog, Av. āsu, Skr. āśu, Russ. jastreb, OCS jastrębŭ
*H₁omH₁-so- shoulder Gk. ōmos, Lat. umĕrus, Skr. a

sa, Goth. ams, ON ass, Toch. es/āntse, Arm. us

*H₁oḱtō(u) eight Arm. ut'/ut'/ut'ĕ, Alb. tëte/tetë, Lith. aštuoni, Ltv. astoņi, Gaul. oxtū, Gm. ahto/acht, Eng. eahta/eight, Gk. oktō, Av. ašta, Ir. ocht/ocht, Kashmiri ā.

h, Lyc. aitãta-, Kamviri u , Lat. octō, Oscan uhto, ON átta, Old Prussian astōnjai, Osset. ast/ast, Pers. ašta/hašt, OCS osmĭ, Polish osiem, Russ. vosem', Skr. a a, Toch. okät/okt, Goth. ahtau, Welsh wyth

*H₁reudʰ-ó- red Lat. ruber, Eng. rēad/red, Lith. raudonas, Ltv. ruds, Skr. rudhira, Russ. rdet', Gk. eruthros, Toch. rtär/ratre, Av. raoðita, Goth. rauþs, ON rjóðr, Gm. rōt/rot, Oscan Rufriis, Umbrian rufru, Ir. ruad/ Welsh rhudd, Gaul. Roudos
*H₁reug- to vomit Russ. rygat', Polish rzygać, Lith. riaugėti, Ltv. raugāties, Gk. ereugomai, Lat. ructāre, Eng. rēocan/reek, Gm. rouhhan/rauchen; itruchen/, ON reykja, Pers. /āroġ, Arm. vorcam/vordzam,
*H₁reugʰmen- cream Lith. rūgti, Ltv. raugs, Av. raoġna, Pers. /roġān, ON rjúmi, Eng. rēam/ream, Gm. roum/Rahm
*H₁reus-men- throat Skr. rōmantha, Lat. rūmen, Welsh rhumen, Lith. raumuo, Ltv. raumins
*H₁r̥tḱo- bear Gk. arktos, Lat. ursus, Skr.

k a, Pers. /xers, Arm. arj/arč, Gaul. Artioni, Alb. ari, Kamviri ic, Osset. ærs, Welsh arth, Av. aršam, Hitt. artagga

*H₁égni- fire Skr. agni, Hitt. agniš, Lat. ignis, Lith. ugnis, Ltv. uguns, OCS ognĭ, Polish ogień, Russ. ogon', Alb. enjte
*H₁éH₃g-o- berry Toch. oko/oko, Lith. uoga, Ltv. oga, OCS agoda, Russ. jagoda, Polish jagoda, Goth. akran, ON akarn, Gm. ēker/Ecker, Eng. æcern/acorn, Ir. áirne/, Welsh aeron
*H₁ésH₂r̥- (nom-acc. *H₁ésH₂r̥, gen. *H₁esH₂n-ós) blood Skr. as

k, Old Lat. aser, Ltv. asins, Hitt. ešar, Lyc. esêne-, Luw. ašhar-, Toch. ysār/yasar, Gk. eiar, Arm. ariun

*H₁óH₂wyo- (nom-acc. *H₁óH₂wyom, gen. *H₁óH₂wyo-s) egg Lat. ōvum, Gk. ōion, Russ. jajco, Gm. ei/Ei, Eng. ǣ

g/Cockney, Ir. /ubh, Welsh ŵy, Alb. ve;vo, ON egg, Crimean Gothic ada, Arm. dzu/cu, Pers. /xāyah, OCS ajĭse, Kurd. hék

*H₁ói-no- one Alb. një/nji, Lith. vienas, Ltv. viens, Gaul. oinos, Gm. ein/eins, Eng. ān/one, Gk. oios, Av. aēuua, Ir. óin/aon, Kashmiri akh, Kamviri ev, Oscan uinus, ON einn, Old Prussian aīns, Osset. iu/ieu, Pers. aiva/yek, OCS edinŭ, Polish jeden, Russ. odin, Skr. eka, Lat. ūnus, Umbrian uns, Goth. ains, Welsh un

h₂, a

Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₂ebl-o- apple Lith. obuolys, Ltv. ābols, Eng. æppel/apple, Russ. jabloko, Ir. uball/ubhall, Gm. aphul/Apfel, Polish jabłko, Welsh afal, Old Prussian woble, Skr. abala, ON eple, Gaul. avallo, OCS jabloko
h₂eǵʰ- plough animal Arm. ezn/yez(n)/yez(n), Ir. ag/agh, Welsh ewig, Skr. ahī, Av. azī
*h₂ego- fault, sin Skr. āgas, Gk. agos, Eng. acan/ache
*h₂ekʷ- water Lat. aqua, Russ. Oka, Goth. aha, Gm. aha/Ache, Eng. īg/island, Hitt. akwanzi, Luw. ahw-, Palaic aku-, ON á, Goth. aƕ

a

*h₂ep- water Skr. ap; *h₂p-isk- "fish" Lat. piscis, Ir. íasc/iasc, Goth. fisks, ON fiskr, Eng. fisc/fish, Gm. fisc/Fisch, Russ. peskar', Polish piskorz, Welsh pysgodyn
*h₂egʷs-iH₂- axe Lat. ascia, Eng. æx/axe, Gm. ackis/Axt, Gk. aksinē, ON øx, Goth. aqizi
*h₂egʷʰno- lamb OCS jagnę, Russ. jagnënok, Gk. amnos, Ir. úan/uan, Eng. ēanian/yean, Welsh oen, Lat. agnus, Umbrian habina, Polish jagnię
*h₂eig- sick Lat. aeger, Toch. /aikare, ON eikenn, Lith. ingas, Ltv. angus, OCS jęsa, Russ. jaga, Polish jędza, Eng. inca/, Arm. yekro/yegro
*h₂eim- copy Hitt.

imma, Lat. aemulus; imāgō

*h₂eiti- part Av. aēta, Oscan aeteis, Gk. aitios, Ir. áes/aois, Welsh oes
*h₂eiw- vital force Skr. āyu, Lat. aevum, Av. āyū, Toch. āym/, Eng. æfre/ever, Gm. īo/je; êwig/ewig, Goth. aiws, ON ei, Gk. aiōn, Alb. eshë
*h₂eiǵ- goat Skr. e

a, Av. izaēna, Arm. aic/aidz, Gk. aiks

*h₂eiǵ- oak Lith. ąžuolas, Lat. aesculus, Gk. krataigos/, ON eik, Eng. āc/oak, Gm. eihha/Eiche
*h₂eiḱ- spear/pike Gk. aiklos/, Lat. īcō, Old Prussian aysmis, OCS igla, Polish igła, Av. išarə, Lith. iešmas, Ltv. iesms, ON eigin, Russ. igla
*h₂eiḱ- to be master of, to possess Eng. āgan/ought, Goth. aigan, Gm. eigan/eigen, ON eiga, Skr. ī

e, Av. īšti

*h₂ek-mon- stone Gk. akmōn, Lith. akmuo, Ltv. akmens, Skr. aśman, Av. asman, Russ. kamen', Eng. hamer/hammer, Polish kamień, ON hamarr, Hitt. aku, Pers. asman/, Gaul. acaunum, Gm. hamar/Hammer
*h₂el-yó- *H₂el-nó- other Lat. alius, Eng. elles/else, Skr. ara

a, Gk. allos, Oscan allo, Toch. ālak/allek, Arm. ayl, Gaul. alla, Ir. aile/eile, Welsh ail, Goth. alijs, Gm. elilenti/elend, ON elligar, Lyd. aλaś

*h₂elbʰ-it- barley Alb. elb, Gk. alphi/
*h₂elbʰó- white Lat. albus, Umbrian alfu, Hitt. alpas, Gm. Alps, Welsh elfydd, Russ. lebed', Eng. ælf/elf, Gk. alphos, Lyc. alb-, ON alfr
*h₂elud- beer Lith. alus, Ltv. alus, Lat. alūmen, Eng. ealu/ale, Gk. aludoimo/, ON ǫ

l, Old Prussian alu, OCS olŭ

*H₂en- ancestor Gk. annis/anōn, Lat. anus, Illyr. ana, Gm. ano/ahn, Lith. anyta, Hitt. hannas, Arm. han, Russ. vnuk, Old Prussian ane
*H₂en- spirit Skr. ānas, Goth. uzanan; andi, Ir. anál/anál, Gk. anemos, Lat. animus, OCS vonja, Russ. von', Welsh anysbryd, ON anda; ǫ

nd, Eng. eðian/--; ōþian/--, Welsh eneid, Av. åntya, Lith. anuoti, Arm. hov, Alb. ajë/âj, Oscan anamum, Toch. āñcäm/āñme

*H₂engwi- eel Lat. Anguilla, Lith. ungurys, Gm. angar/Engerling, Russ. ugor', Gk. egkhelus, Old Prussian angurgis
*H₂enH₁-ti- duck Lat. anas, Lith. antis, Skr. ātis, Russ. utie, Gm. anut/Ente, Eng. ened/--, ON ǫ

nd, Old Prussian antis, Gk. nēssa/

*H₂enk- angle Gm. ango/, Osset. ængur, Skr. a

kas, Lat. ancus, Lith. anka, Ltv. āķis, Gk. agkōn, Russ. ugol, ON angi, Av. a kupəsəmna, Welsh anghad, Ir. ēcath/, Hitt. hink

*H₂enǵʰ- narrow Gk. ankhō/, Skr. a

hu, Av. ąza hē, Russ. uzkij, Goth. aggwus, ON aungr, Arm. anjuk/ančug, Gm. engi/eng, Hitt. hamenk, OCS ǫ zŭkŭ, Polish wąski, Lith. ankšta, Toch. e ts/entse, Eng. enge/, Welsh ehang, Ir. /cumung

*H₂ep- river, lake Hitt.

ap(a), Palaic apnas, Luw. apinni, Ltv. upe, Lith. upė, Old Prussian ape, Eng. ōfer/, Gm. /Ufer, Skr. āp, Av. afš, Lat. amnis, Toch. āp/āp

*H₂ep- to reach Av. apayeiti, Lat. apex, Skr. āptas, Gk. apto, Arm. unim, Hitt. apanzi, Toch. oppäśśi/, Polish opaść
*H₂eps-eH₂- aspen Eng. æspe/aspen, Gm. aspa/Espe, ON ǫ

sp, Lith. epušė, Ltv. apse, Old Prussian abse, Gk. aspris/

*H₂er- nut Russ. orex, Alb. arrë, Gk. arna, Polish orzech
*H₂erg- to lock Gk. arkeō, Lat. arcēre, Arm. argel/arkel, Goth. arka, Old Prussian arkan, Polish arkan, Hitt.

ark-, Toch. --/ārk, Oscan trííbarakavúm, Lith. raktas; užrakinti

*H₂erH₁- to plow Toch. āre/āre, Lat. arō, Gk. arotēr, Lith. arti, Ltv. art, OCS orati, Russ. orat', Arm. araur, Ir. airim/, Polish orać, Goth. arjan, Eng. erian/--, ON arðr, Welsh arddu, Old Prussian artoys, Gm. erien/
*H₂erǵó-, *H₂erǵí- white, shining Gk. arguros, Lat. arguō, Hitt.

arkiš, Toch. ārki/arkwi, Eng. eorcnanstān/--, Gk. erchan/--, Skr. arjuna, Ir. argat/airgead, Av. arəzah, Welsh ariant, Oscan aragetud, Arm. arcat'/ardzat', Phryg. arg, Thrac. arzas, Gaul. Argentoratum, Goth. unairkns

*H₂eu- to help Skr. avati, Lat. aveō, Av. avaiti, Arm. aviun, Gaul. Avicantus, Goth. ewyll, Gk. -aones, Lith. aušti, Ltv. aust, Ir. con ói/, Toch. olar/aulāre, ON auð, Eng. īþe/, Gm. ōdmuoti/
*H₂eug- to glance Gk. augē, Alb. agon, Russ. jug, OCS jugŭ
*H₂eug- to increase Lith. augti, Ltv. augt, Lat. auctis, Gk. auksōn, Skr. ugra, Toch. ok/auk, Eng. eacan/eke, Gm. wahsan/wachsen; ouh/auch, ON auka, Goth. aukan, Old Prussian auginnons, Umbrian uhtur
*H₂euH₂o- *H₂éuH₂-yo- paternal grandfather, maternal uncle Lat. avus ;avunculus, Gaul. avontīr, Gk. aia, Lith. avynas, Old Prussian awis, Welsh ewythr, Arm. hav, Eng. ēam/--, Ir. aue/ó, Goth. awó, Gm. ōheim/Oheim, OCS uy, Russ. uj, Polish wuj, Hitt. huhhas
*H₂eus- dawn Lat. aurōra, Lith. aušra, Ltv. ausma, Gm. ōstra/Osten, Skr. u

ās, Russ. utro, Eng. ēast/east, Gk. hēos, ON austr, Av. ušastara, Ir. fáir/, Welsh gwawr

*H₂ewi- (nom. *H₂ewi-s, gen. *H₂wei-s) bird Lat. avis, Av. vīš, Skr. vis, Arm. hav, Welsh hwyad, Gk. aetos, Lith. višta, Ltv. vista, Umbrian avif, Ir. /aoi
*H₂eǵ- goat Skr. aja, Pers. /azg, Lith. ožys, Ltv. āzis, Ir. ag/agh, OCS jazno, Russ. jaz', Old Prussian wosux, Alb. dhi
*H₂eǵʰero- lake Lith. ežeras, Ltv. ezers, Russ. ozero, Illyr. oseriates, Gk. Akherōn, OCS jezero, Polish jezioro, Old Prussian assaran
*H₂eḱ- sharp Gk. akros, Lat. ācer, Skr. aśris, OCS ostrŭ, Russ. ost'; ostryj, Ir. aicher/, Lith. aštrus, Ltv. asmens, Goth. ahs, Pers. /ās, Gaul. Akrotalus, Welsh eithiw, Oscan akrid, Umbrian peracri, Arm. asełn/aseġ/aseġ, Alb. athët, Toch. āk/āke, Eng. ecg/edge, ON egg, Gm. egga/Ecke, Polish ostry, XMK akrounoi
*H₂ner- power Lat. neriōsus, Welsh nerth, Alb. njer, Skr. nar, Luw. anarummi, Lyd. nãrś, Lith. noras, Russ. nrav, Gaul. Nertobriga, Arm. air, Gk. anēr, Oscan ner, Umbrian nerf, Ir. nert/, Phryg. anar
*H₂nos- nose Lat. nasus, Skr. nasa, OCS nasu, Russ. nos, Lith. nosis, Ltv. nāss, Eng. nosu/nose, Av. nah, Gm. nasa/Nase, Kamviri nâsu

, Old Prussian nazy, Pers. nāham/, ON nös

*H₂ous- ear Lat. auris, Gk. ous, Skr. usi, OCS ucho, Russ. uši, Goth. auso, Lith. ausis, Ltv. auss, Gaul. ausia-, Alb. vesh, Gm. ōra/Ohr, Ir. au/, Av. usi, Pers. gaušā/guš, Eng. éare/ear, ON eyra, Arm. unkn/akanj/aganč, Old Prussian āusins. See also Hausos.
*H₂s-tér- star Lat. stella, Gk. astēr, Gm. sterro/Stern, Eng. steorra/star, ON stjarna, Goth. stairno, Arm. astł/astġ/asdġ, Skr. tāras;st

bhis, Welsh seren, Toch. śre/śćirye, Kamviri âšto, Pers. /setāre, Osset. sthaly/, Hitt. šittar, Kurd. stérk/estére

*H₂u-per over Lat. super, Gk. huper, Skr. upari, Av. upairi, Eng. ofer/over, Gm. ubar/über, Goth. ufarō, ON yfir, Gaul. Uertragus, Ir. for/for, Pers. upariy/bar, Welsh gwarthaf, Oscan supruis, Umbrian super, Arm. ver, Av. upairi
*H₂wap- bad, evil Hitt.

uwapp, Eng. yfel/evil, Gm. ubil/Übel, Goth. ubils

*H₂yuH₁ení- young OCS junu, Russ. junyj, Skr. yuvan, Gaul. Jovincillus, Lith. jaunas, Ltv. jauns, Eng. geong/young, Av. yavan, Lat. juvĕnis, Umbrian iuengar , Gm. jung/jung, Welsh ieuanc, ON ungr, Goth. juggs, Welsh ieuanc, Ir. óc/óg, Pers. /javān
*H₂éd-es- cereal Hitt. hattar, Lat. ador, Gm. azzic/, Goth. atisk, Toch. āti/atiyo, Av. āðūfrāðana, Arm. hat/had
*H₂ég-ro- field Skr. ajra, Gk. agros, Lat. ager, Umbrian ager, Goth. akrs, Eng. æcer/acre, Arm. art/ard, Gm. achar/Acker, ON akr
*H₂ént-i front Hitt.

anta, Luw. hantili, Lyc. xñtawata, Lith. ant, Eng. ende/end, Gm. endi/Ende, Goth. and, ON endr, Gk. anti, Ir. étan/, Lat. antiae, Oscan ant, Toch. ānt/ānte

*H₂érkʷo- bow Lat. arcus, Goth. arƕ

azna, Eng. arwe/arrow, Gk. arkeuthos, Russ. rakita, Polish rakieta, Ltv. ērkšķis, ON ǫ rvar, Umbrian arçlataf

*H₂éwiǵ- oats Lat. avēna, Lith. aviža, Ltv. auza, Russ. ovës, Polish owies, Gk. aigilōps/, Old Prussian wyse, OCS ovĭsŭ
*H₂éy-es- (nom. H₂eyos, gen. H₂eyesos) metal Skr. ayas, Lat. aes, Umbrian ahesnes, Gm. ēr/Erz, Eng. ār/ore, Av. aya

h, Goth. aiz, ON eir, Gaul. Isarnodori, Ir. iarn/iarann, Welsh haearn, Pers. /āhan

*H₂éǵʰ-r/n̥- day Skr. ahar, Av. azan
*H₂ó-sd-o- branch Arm. ost/vost/vosd, Gk. ozos, Eng. ōst, Gm. ast/Ast, Goth. asts, Hitt.

ašda-

h₃, o

Root Meaning Derivatives
*H₃el-no- alder Lat. alnus, Lith. alksnis, Ltv. elksnis, Russ. olxa, XMK aliza, ON alr, Gm. elira/Erle, Eng. alor/alder, Old Prussian aliskande, Gaul. alisa, Hitt. alanzan, Polish olcha
*H₃em- bitter Gk. ōmos, Lat. amārus, Arm. hum, Skr. amla, Eng. ampre/, ON apr, Ltv. amols, Alb. ëmblë, XMK abro-
*H₃engʷ- to anoint Skr. anakti, Arm. aucanem/audzanem, Ir. /imb, Lat. unguō, Umbrian umtu, Old Prussian anctan, Gm. ancho/, Welsh ymenyn
*H₃erbʰo- work Lat. orbus, Arm. orb/orp, Ir. orbe/, Skr. arbha, Hitt. arpa, Gk. orphanos, Gm. arbeit/Arbeit, Eng. earfoð/--, OCS rabŭ, Polish robota, Russ. rebënok, Gaul. Orbius, Goth. arbi, ON arfr, Lith. irbu
*H₃ers- to protrude Gk. oura, Arm. or, Hitt. arras, Eng. ears/arse, Ir. err/earr, Gm. ars/Arsch, ON ars
*H₃erǵʰi- testicle Gk. orkhēs, Arm. ordzik'/orcik', Ir. uirge/, Lith. aržilas, Ltv. ērzelis, Av. ərəzi, Alb. herdhe
*H₃eyó- multicolored, reddish Lith. ieva, Ltv. ieva, Eng. īw/yew, Gm. īwa/Eibe, ON ýr, Gk. oiē, Gaul. ivo, Ir. éo/eó, Welsh iwen, Russ. iva
*H₃nobʰ- navel Lat. umbilīcus, Skr. nabhya, Av. nāba, Ltv. naba, Gm. nabalo/Nabel, Eng. nafela/navel, ON nafli, Gk. omphalos, Ir. imbliu/imleacán, Kashmiri naf, Old Prussian nabis, Pers. /nāf
*H₃nógʰ-o- / *H₃nógʰ-ro- / *H₃nógʰ-i- nail Gk. onukhos, Lat. unguis, Skr. a

ghri, Gm. nagel/Nagel, OCS noguti, Russ. nogot', Lith. nagas, Ltv. nags, Av. nakhara, Arm. ełgungn/yeġung/yeġunk, Welsh ewin, Eng. nægl/nail, Pers. /nāxun, Ir. inga/ionga

*H₃okʷ- eye Lat. oculus, OCS oko, Russ. oko, Toch. ak/ek, Arm. akn/ač'k'/ač'k', Skr. ak

an, Gk. ophthalmos, Eng. ēge/eye, Gm. ouga/Auge, Goth. augo, Alb. sy, Lith. akis, Ltv. acs, Kamviri âč , Ir. enech/oineach, Welsh enep, ON auga, Polish oko, Old Prussian ackis

*H₃or-no- eagle Gm. arn/Aar, Arm. arciv/ardziv, Eng. earn/erne, Gk. orneon, Russ. orel, Lith. erelis, Ltv. ērglis, Hitt.

aran, Polish orzeł, Welsh eryr, ON ari, Goth. ara, Alb. orë, Old Prussian arelis, Ir. irar/

*H₃ost- / kost- bone Lat. os; costa, Alb. asht, Gk. ostoun, Russ. kost'; ostov, Skr. asthan, Av. asti, Hitt.

astāi, Welsh asgwrn, Kamviri â i, Pers. /ostexān, Polish kość, Toch. /ásta, Arm. oskr/voskr/vosgr, Luw. āš

*H₃owi- (nom. H₃owi-s, gen. H₃ewy-ós) sheep Russ. ovca, Lith. avis, Ltv. avs, Skr. avika, Eng. ēowu/ewe, Gm. ouwi/Aue, Goth. awēþi, ON ǽr, Gk. ois, Ir. ói/, Hitt.

awi, Luw. āwi-, Welsh ewig, Toch. --/āuw, Arm. hoviv, Polish owca, Lat. ovis, Umbrian uvem, Old Prussian awins, Lyc. xabwa

*H₃reǵ- to straighten Lat. regere, Gk. oregein, Eng. riht/right, Gm. reht/recht, ON réttr, Goth. raihts, Thrac. rhesus, Toch. räk/räk, Arm. arcvi/ardzvi;
*H₃rēǵ-(H₃ón-) / "ruler, king": Skr. rājan, Oscan regaturei, Lat. rēx, Gaul. rīx, Ir. ríg/rígh, Welsh rhi, Av. raz, Pers. /rahst
*H₃és-H₃en- (nom. *H₃esH₃ōn, gen. *H₃esH₃n-ós) harvest Russ. osen', Old Prussian assanis, Eng. earnian/earn, Goth. asans, Gm. aran/Ernte, ON ǫ

nn, Gk. opōra, Polish jesień, Lat. annōna, Arm. ashun

*H₃és-no- H₃és-i- ash Lat. ornus, Lith. uosis, Ltv. osis, Russ. osina, Gm. asc/Esche, Eng. æsc/ash, Old Prussian woasis, ON askr, Welsh onnen, Alb. ah, Arm. hac'i, Gk. akherōis/

Root Meaning Derivatives
*ḱak- branch Arm. čyuġ/jyuġ, Lith. šaka, Ltv. saka, Skr. śākhā, Russ. soxa, Alb. thekë, Goth. hōha, Kamviri coa, Old Prussian sagnis, Ir. gēc/gēag, Gm. huohili/ , Pers. /šāxe(h)
*ḱalH₂mo- reed Gk. kalamos, Lat. culmus, Toch. kulmã

ts/, Eng. healm/haulm, Ltv. salms, Old Prussian salme, Russ. soloma, ON halmr, Gm. halm/Halm, Ir. /giolcach (-cach being diminutive suffix)

*ḱas- gray Lat. cānus, Skr. śaśa, Gm. hasu/; haso/Hase, Old Prussian sasins, Eng. hasu/; hara/hare, ON hǫ

ss; heri, Welsh ceinach, Pashto soe

*ḱat- battle OCS kotora, Gaul. catu, Eng. heaþu, Gm. hathu/, Skr. śātayati, ON hoð, Ir. cath/cath, Welsh cad, Toch. /keta
*ḱeH₂d- hate Eng. hete/hate, Gm. haz/haß, Goth. hatis, ON hatr, Skr. riśadas, Av. sādra/, Gk. kēdos, Oscan cadeis amnud, Ir. caiss/cais, Welsh câs
*ḱel- warm, cold Ltv. silt, Lith. šilti, Ir. clithe/, Welsh clyd, ON hlǽr, Eng. hlēow/lukewarm, Gm. lāo/lau, Skr. śiśira, Av. sarəta, Osset. sald, Pers. /sard, Lat. calēre, Kurd. šíle/kul/germ
*ḱer- horn Lat. cerĕbrum, Russ. čerep, Old Prussian kerpetis, Gk. kare, Av. sarah, Skr. śiras, Arm. sar, Bret. kern, Gm. hirni/Hirn, ON hjarni, Pers. /sar, Toch. /krāñi, Osset. sær, Alb. krye *ḱerberó- piebald Gk. kerberos, Skr. śarvara, Russ. sobol', Ir. corbaim/, Lith. kirba
*ḱerd- (nom. *ḱēr, acc. *ḱérd-m̥ gen. *ḱr̥d-ós) heart Lat. cor, Skr. h

daya, Av. zərədā, Hitt. karts, Lyc. kride, Palaic kart-, Gk. kardia, Eng. heorte/heart, OCS srĭdĭce, Russ. serdce, Lith. širdis, Ltv. sirds, Old Prussian seyr, Arm. sird/sirt, Welsh craidd, Kamviri zâra, Ir. cride/croidhe, Polish serce, Gm. herza/Herz, Goth. hairto, ON hjarta, Osset. zærdæ

*ḱerH₂- to mix Eng. hrēr/rare, Gm. hruoren/rühren, ON hrǿra, Skr. śrāyati, Av. sar, Gk. kratēr
*ḱermus- cherry Gk. kerasos/keradion, Lith. šermukšlė, Ltv. cērmaukša, Russ. čerëmuxa
*ḱern- horn Lat. cervus; cornūs,, Russ. serna, Eng. horn/horn, Skr. śiras, Av. srvā, Gk. keras, Welsh corn, Kamviri

i , Gm. horn/Horn, Goth. haurn, ON horn, Hitt. karawar, Osset. sykha/, Arm. sar, Lith. širšė, Ltv. sirsis, Old Prussian sirwis, Alb. sorkadh; ka, Russ. korova, Gaul. karnuks, Ir. corn/corn, Pers. /šāx, Polish krowa, Kurd. ser

*ḱers- to run Lat. currō, Gaul. carros, Gk. epikouros, Welsh carrog, Ir. carr/, Toch. kursär/kwasär, Gm. horsk/, ON horskr, Eng. horsc/
*ḱewH₁ro- northwind Russ. sever, Lith. šiaurys, Arm. c'urt/c'urd, Eng. scūr/shower, Gm. scūr/Schauer, Goth. skura, ON skúr, OCS severu
*ḱiker- pea Lat. cicer, Arm. sise

n, Gk. krios, Lith. kekė

*ḱlei- to lean Lat. clīnō, Ir. clóin/, Gk. klinē, Eng. hleonian/lean, Arm. le

, Lith. šlieti, Ltv. sliet, Russ. sloj, Skr. śrayati, Av. srinu, Gm. hlīnen/lehnen, Welsh clwyd, Old Prussian slayan, Toch. kälyme/kälymiye, Goth. hlain, ON hlein

*ḱlep- to steal Lat. clepō, Gk. kleptō, Arm. goġnal/koġnal, Goth. hlifan, Ir. cluain/, Old Prussian auklipts, Lith. slėpti, Ltv. slēpt
*ḱleu- clean Lat. cloāca, Gk. kludōn, Gaul. Cluad, Eng. hlūttor/, Lith. šluoti, Ltv. slaumi, Russ. sleza, Welsh clir, Gm. hlūttar/lauter, Goth. hlūtrs, ON hlér, OCS slĭza
*ḱleu- to hear Lat. cluēre, Gaul. clu, Gk. kleos, Illyr. cleves, Lith. klausyti; šlovė, Ltv. klausīt, OCS slovo, Russ. slovo, Skr. śru, Av. surunaoiti, Gm. hlut/laut, Eng. hlud/loud, Toch. klyos, ON hljóðr, Goth. hliuþ, Toch. klāw/klāw, Arm. lu, Alb. quhem, Polish słowo
*ḱlouni- buttock Lat. clūnis, ON hlaun, Kamviri slaunis, Skr. śro

i, Av. sraoni, Welsh clun, Lith. šlaunis

*ḱm̥tóm hundred Lat. centum, Lith. šimtas, Ltv. simts, Gm. hunt/hundert, Eng. hundred/hundred, Goth. hund, ON hundrað, Gk. hekaton, Av. sata, Gaul. cantam, Ir. cét/cead, Kashmiri śath, Osset. sædæ, Pers. /sad, OCS sŭto, Polish sto, Russ. sto, Skr. śata, Av. satem, Toch. känt/kante, Welsh cant
*ḱon- shell Lat. conguius, Gk. kogkhos, Skr. śa

kha

*ḱubʰ- shoulder Lat. cubitus, Alb. sup, Gm. huf/Hüfte, Eng. hype/hip, Gk. kubos, Av. supti, Skr. śupti, Goth. hups, Welsh gogof, Pers. /šāne
*ḱwen- holy Lith. šventas, Ltv. svinēt, Russ. svjatoj, Av. spanyah, Goth. hunsl, Polish święty, Old Prussian swints, ON hunsl, Eng. hūsel/housel, OCS svętŭ, Kurd. khawén
*ḱwon- (nom. *ḱwōn, gen. *ḱun-ós) dog Lat. canis, Gk. kuōn/, Arm. šun, Phryg. kunes, Toch. ku/ku, Gaul. cuna, Eng. hund/hound, Skr. śvan, Av. spā, Russ. suka, Polish suka; kundel(?), Gm. hunt/Hund, Kashmiri hūn, Lith. šuo, Ltv. suns, Old Prussian sunis, Thrac. dinu-, Goth. huns, ON hundr, Welsh ci, Ir. cū/cú, Hitt. śuwanis, Lyd. kan-, Dacian kinu-, Alb. shakë, Pers. /sag
*ḱóino- grass Gk. koina, Arm. xot/xod, Lith. šienas, Ltv. siens, Russ. seno, Polish siano
*ḱórw-eH₂- crow Alb. sorrë, Lith. šarka, Gk. koraks, Russ. soroka, Skr. śāri, Lat. cornīx, Umbrian curnāco

k

Root Meaning Derivatives
*kaiko- one-eyed Lat. caecus, Skr. kekara, Lith. keikti, Gk. kaikias, Ir. caech/, Welsh coeg, Goth. haihs, Polish Kajko
*kailo- whole Welsh coel, Gm. heil/heil, Eng. hālig/holy, ON heilagr, Goth. hailags, OCS cĕlŭ, Russ. celyĭ, Old Prussian kailūstiskan, Polish cały
*kakka excrement Lat. cacāre, Russ. kakat', Gk. kakkaō, Arm. k'akor/k'agor, Ir. cacc/cac, Gm. /Kacke, Welsh cach, Lith. kaka, Pers. /keke(h)
*kal- handsome Skr. kalya, Gk. kallos
*kan- to sing Gk. kanakheō/, Ir. canim/, Russ. kanyuk, Goth. hana, Eng. hen/hen, Gm. hano/Hahn, ON hani; hœna, Welsh canu, Pers. /āvāz xāndan, Lat. canō, Umbrian kanetu, Kurd. xwéndin/wenín
*kant- corner Gk. kanthos, Lat. cantus, Gaul. kantem, Goth. cant, Russ. kut, Polish kant; kąt, Lith. kampas
*kapro- goat Skr. kap

tha, Gk. kapros, Lat. caper, Umbrian kabru, Gaul. cabros, Ir. gabor/, Welsh gafr, ON hafr, Eng. hæfer/, Gm. habaro/Haber

*kaput- head Skr. kapucchala, Lat. caput, Eng. heafod/head, Gm. houbit/Haupt, ON haufuð, Goth. haubiþ
*kat- cub Lat. catulus, Umbrian katel, Russ. kotit'sja, ON haðna, Ir. cadla/
*ke(n)g- hook Lith. kengė, Pers. /čang, Ir. ailcheng/, Russ. kogot', Eng. hoc/hook, ON haki; hǫ

nk, Gm. hâco/Haken

*ked- to fume Gk. kedros, Skr. kadru, Lith. kadagys, Ltv. kadags, OCS kadilo, Russ. čad, Old Prussian kadegis
*keH₂ro- wax Gk. kēros, Lith. korys, Ltv. kāre, Ir. /céir, Lat. cēra
*kel- glue Gk. kolla, Lith. klijai, Russ. klej, Polish klej
*kenk- kneecap Skr. kañkāla, Lith. kenkle, Ltv. cinksla, Eng. hēla/heel, ON hǽll
*kerp- to pluck Gk. karpos, Lat. carpere, Eng. hærfest/harvest, Ir. carr/, Welsh par, Goth. ƕ

aírban, ON hverfa, Toch. kārp/kärp, Gm. hwerban/werben, Lith. kirpti

*klen- maple Russ. klën, Polish klon, ON hlynr, Lith. klevas, Ltv. kļava, XMK klinotrokhon, Eng. hlin/linn, Welsh celyn
*knid- louse Russ. gnida, Polish gnida, Ltv. gnīda, Welsh nedd, Gm. hniz/Nisse, Gk. konis, Alb. thërijë/thëni, Arm. anic/anidz, Ir. /sned, Eng. hnitu/nit
*kob- to succeed Gaul. Vercobius, Ir. cob/, Eng. gehæp/, ON happ, OCS kobĭ, Russ. kob', Toch. akappi/
*koiló- naked Ir. cóil/, Welsh cul, Ltv. kails
*kom with Lat. cum, Ir. com-/, Eng. ge-/--, gemōt/gemot, Gm. ga-/ge-, Goth. ga-, ON g-, Gk. koinos, Russ. k, Polish k, OCS
*krem- onion Gk. kremuon, Ir. crem/creamh, Eng. hramsan/ramson, Lith. kermušė, Ltv. cermaukša;cērmūkslis, Russ. čeremša, Welsh craf
*kreuH₂- blood Skr. kravis, Lat. cruor, Lith. kraujas, Ltv. krevele, OCS kruvi, Russ. krov', Ir. cró/creo, Gk. kreas, ON hrár, Av. xrūva, Welsh crau, Polish krew, Gm. hrāo/roh, Old Prussian crauyo, Eng. hrēaw/raw
*kroksko- leg Alb. krah, Lith. kirkaliai, OCS kraka, Russ. okorok, Skr. ki

ku

*ksweid- milk Lith. sviestas, Ltv. sviests, Skr. k

vidyati, Av. xšvīd

*kuep- to boil Skr. kupyati, Lat. cupere, Lith. kvepėti, Ltv. kvēpēt, Russ. kipet', Alb. kapit, Gk. kapnos, ON hvap, Toch. kāp/kāp, Old Prussian kupsins, OCS kypĕti, Goth. afƕ

apjan, Hitt. kup

*kwas- to cough Skr. kasāte, Ir. /casachdach, Russ. kašljat', Lith. kosėti, Ltv. kāsēt, Gm. huosto/Husten, ON hósta, Kamviri kâsa, Polish kaszleć, Alb. kollje, Welsh pas, Toch. /kosi, Eng. hwōsta/
*kwat- sour Skr. kvathas, Lat. cāseus, OCS kvasŭ, Russ. kvas, Ltv. kūsāt, Alb. cos, Polish kwas, Goth. ƕ

aþō, Eng. hwaþerian/

*kóro- war Lith. karas, Ltv. kaŗš, Gk. koiranos, Ir. cuire/, Gm. heri/Heer, Eng. herebeorg/harbour, Russ. kara, Polish kara, ON herr, Goth. harjis, Gaul. Tricorii, Pers. kāra/kārzār, Old Prussian kargis, Kurd. šer
*kóslo- hazel Lat. corulus, Lith. kasulas, Eng. hæsel/hazel, ON hasl, Gm. hasal/Hasel, Ir. coll/coll, Welsh collen

Root Meaning Derivatives
*kʷe Enclitic "and" Lat. -que, Goth. -u(h), Gk. -te, Skr. ca, Lyc. -ke, Luw. -ku
*kʷeiH- quiet Lat. quiēs, ON hvīla, Eng. hwil/while, Gm. hwila/Weile, Goth. ƕ

eila, OCS počiti, Russ. počit', Skr. ciram, Av. šāitiš, Pers. šiyātiš/šāh, Lyc. tezi, Toch. /śāte, Polish odpoczywać, Arm. hangč'im/hankč'im, Lith. tylus

*kʷetwóres (m), *kʷetwesóres (f), *kʷetwōr (n) four Lat. quattuor, Arm. č'ork'/č'ors/č'ors, Alb. katër/katër, Lith. keturi, Ltv. četri, Gaul. petor, Gm. feor/vier, Eng. fēower/four, Gk. tessares, Av. čaθwar, Ir. cethir/ceahair, Kashmiri tsor, Kamviri što, Oscan petora, ON fjórir, Old Prussian keturjāi, Osset. cyppar/cuppar, Pers. /čahār, OCS četyri, Polish cztery, Russ. četyre, Skr. catur, Toch. śtwar/śtwer, Thrac. ketri-, Umbrian petor, Goth. fidwor, Welsh pedwar, Bret. pevar, Lyc. teteri, Kurd. čwar
*kʷrei- to buy Skr. krī

āti, Lith. kraitis, Ltv. kriens, Ir. crenaim/, Russ. krenut', Toch. kuryar/käry, Gk. priamai, Arm. gnel/knel, Welsh prynu

*kʷrép-o- / *kʷr̥p-eH₂- body Lat. corpus, Skr. k

pā, Av. kərəfš, Alb. shkrep, Gm. href/, Eng. hrif/midriff, Gk. prapis, Welsh corff, Ir. crí/ , Russ. krup

*kʷr̥-mi- grub Skr. k

mi, Lith. kirmis, Ltv. cērme, Alb. krimb/krymb, Ir. cruim/, OCS čermnyi, Russ. červ', Welsh pryf, Osset. kalm, Pers. /kirm, Old Prussian girmis

*kʷékʷlo- / *kʷol-o- wheel Gk. kuklos, Lat. colus, Toch. kukäl/kokale, Skr. cakra, Russ. koleso, Eng. hwēol/wheel, Pers. čarka/čarx, Ir. cul/--, Old Prussian kelan, Osset. calx/, Polish koło, Av. čaxra, Alb. sjell, ON hjōl, Lith. kelias, Luw. kaluti-

l

Root Meaning Derivatives
*laiwó- left (direction) Lat. laevus, Gk. laios, Russ. levyj, Illyr. Levo, Eng. lǣ

w/, Lith. išlaivoti, Polish lewy, ON lǽn, Gm. lēwes/, OCS lĕvŭ

*laks- salmon Toch. laks/läks, ON lax, Lith. lašiša, Ltv. lasis, Russ. losos', Polish łosoś, Gm. lahs/Lachs, Eng. leax/--, Old Prussian lalasso
*laku- pond Gk. lakkos, Lat. lacus, Gm. lagu/, Ir. loch/loch, Arm. lič/lij , Eng. lagu/--, Lith. lekmenė, ON lǫ

gr, Serb. lokva

*las- eager Skr. la

ati, Lat. lascīvus, Russ. laska, Lith. lokšnus, Eng. lust/lust, Gm. lust/Lust, Goth. lustus, ON lyst, Gk. lilaiomai, Ir. lainn/

*lat- swamp Gk. lataks, Lith. Latupė, Ltv. Late, Gaul. Arelate, Ir. lathach/lathach, Gm. letto/letten, Welsh llaid
*lebʰ- lip Lat. labĭum, Gm. /Lippe; lefs/Lefze Eng. lippa/lip, Welsh llefaru, Russ. lobzat', Pers. /lab, Lith. lūpa, Kurd. léw
*legʰ- to lie down Lat. lectus, OCS ležati, Russ. ležat', Gk. lekhethai/, Gm. liggan/liegen, Ir. lige/luighe, Welsh gwely, Eng. lecgen/lie, Polish leżeć, Gaul. legasit, ON liggja, Goth. ligan, Toch. lake/leke, Lith. lagaminas, Ltv. lagača
*leH₂w- to pour, wash Gk. lousis, Lat. lavare, Gaul. lautro, Arm. loganam/lokanam, Hitt. lahhu- 'to pour', Gm. louga/Lauge, Eng. lēðran/lather, ON laug, Ir. lóathar/, Welsh luddw
*leH₃p- cow Alb. lopë, Ir. lāeg, Welsh llo
*lei- to pour Gk. leibó, Skr. riyati, Hitt. lilái-, Alb. lise", Goth. leithu, Lith. lieti, Old Prussian isliuns, OCS liti, Russ. lit', Polish lac', Ir. lie/ Kurd. rijyan
*leig- to jump Gk. elelizdō/, Lith. laigyti; liuoksėti, Goth. laiks, Gm. leih/Leich, Skr. rejati, Pers. /ālēxtan, Eng. lāc/--, ON leikr
*leikʷ- to leave Lat. linquō, Lith. likti, Ltv. likt, Ir. léicid/, Gm. līhan/leihen, Arm. lk'anem, Gk. leipō, Skr. ri

akti, Av. raexnah, Pers. /rēxtan, Old Prussian polijcki, Russ. olek, Eng. lǣ nan/lend, ON ljá, Goth. leiƕ an

*leiǵʰ- to lick Lat. lingere, Skr. le

hi, Ir. ligim/, Gk. leikhein, Arm. luzel, Russ. lizat', Gm. leckôn/lecken, Eng. liccian/lick, Kamviri liza, Polish lizać, Alb. lëpij, ON sleikja, Pers. /lēsēdan, Av. raēzate, Lith. laižyti, Ltv. laizīt, Welsh llywu, Goth. bilaigon, Kurd. lésínewe

*lendʰ- kidney Gm. lenti/Lende, Eng. lenden/--, ON lend, Russ. ljadvie, Lat. lumbus
*lendʰo- steppe Old Prussian lindan, Eng. land/land, ON land, Ir. land/lann, Welsh llan, OCS ledina, Russ. ljada, Polish ląd, Gm. /Land, Gaul. landa
*lengʷʰ- lightweight Lat. levis, Alb. lehtë, Gk. elakhistos, Skr. laghu, Av. ragu, Russ. lëgkij, Lith. lengva, Ltv. liegs, Old Prussian lāngiseilingins, Goth. līhts, Eng. lēoht/light, Gm. līht/leicht, ON lēttr, Toch. /lankŭtse, Ir. lugu/lugha, Welsh llai, OCS lĭgŭkŭ, Polish lekki, Russ. lëgkij, Welsh lai, Kashmiri lo.t
*leubʰ- to love Russ. ljubit', Skr. lubhyati, Eng. lufu/love, Lith. liaupsė, Alb. lum, Gm. liob/Liebe, Polish lubić, ON ljúfr, Goth. liufs, Lat. libido, Oscan loufit, OCS ljubŭ
*leudʰ-o- people Lat. līber, Lith. liaudis, Ltv. ļaudis, OCS ljudĭje, Russ. ljud, Gk. eleutheros, Ir. luss/, Skr. rodhati, Av. raoða, Gm. liut/Leute, Polish lud, ON ljóðr, Alb. lind, Oscan Lúvfreís, Welsh llysiau, Goth. liudan, Eng. lēod/, Old Prussian ludis
*leugʰ- to tell a lie Eng. lyge/lie, Gm. liogan/lügen, ON ljúga, Goth. liugan, Lith. lugoti, OCS lŭgati, Russ. lgat', Welsh llu, Ir. luige/, Polish łgać
*leuk-; *lóuk-o- bright; light OCS luci, Russ. lug, Skr. rocate, Gk. leukos, Eng. lēoht/light, Gm. lioht/licht, Kamviri luka, Goth. liuhaþ, ON leygr, Toch. luk, Oscan Lúvkis, Umbrian Vuvçis, Welsh llug, Ir. loscaim/loiscim, Lat. lux, Lith. lauka, Ltv. lauks, Hitt. lalukkes, Lyc. luga, Luw. luha-, Arm. loys, Kamviri

uč, Gaul. leux, Av. raočant

*leuk-s lynx Gk. lugks, Lith. lūšis, Ltv. lūsis, Old Prussian luysis, Gm. luhs/Luchs, Eng. lox/--, Russ. rys', Polish ryś, Arm. lusanun, Ir. lug/
*leuǵ- to break Gk. lugros/, Alb. lungë, Arm. lucanel/ludzanel, Ir. lucht/, Gm. /Lücke; /Luke, Lith. laužti, Ltv. lauzt, Skr. rujati, Av. uruxti, Welsh llwyth, Eng. tōlūcan/
*lino- flax Lat. līnum, Gk. linon, Lith. linas, Ltv. lini, Old Prussian linno, Ir. lín/líon, Alb. liri/lîni, Goth. lein, Polish len, Russ. lën, Welsh llin, Eng. lin/linen, Gm. lin/Leinen, ON lín, OCS lĭnŭ
*luHs- louse Lith. liulė, Welsh llau, Eng. lūs/louse, Gm. lūs/Laus, ON lús
*lāu- to acquire Gk. leia, Goth. laun, OCS lovŭ, Russ. lovit', Ir. lúag/, Welsh llawen, Gm. lōn/Lohn, Lith. lavinti, ON laun, Eng. lēan/, Skr. lotam, Polish łowić
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