Proto-Indo-European roots 2

From Indo-European Languages

This document is divided into four pieces due to its size: PIE roots 1, PIE roots 2, PIE roots 3 and PIE roots 4.

Contents

h₁, e/o

Root Meaning Derivatives
*H₁ar-mo- arm Osset. arm, Arm. armunk/armung, Lat. armus, OCS ramo, Goth. arms, Eng. earm/arm, Skr. irmas, Old Prussian irmo, Gm. aram/Arm, ON armr, Gk. arthron/
*H₁dont- (nom. *H₁dont-s, gen. *H₁dent-ós) tooth Lat. dentis, Gk. odous/donti, Welsh dant, Lith. dantis, Skr. dantam, Marathi /dat, Eng. tōþ/tooth, Gm. zand/Zahn, Goth. tunþus, Russ. desna, Welsh dant, Kamviri dut, Pers. /dandān, Kashmiri dãd, Ir. dét/déad, ON tǫ

nn, Osset. dændag

*H₁ed- to eat Lith. ėsti, Ltv. ēst, Old Prussian ist, Russ. jest', Polish jeść, Skr. ad, Av. ad, Arm. utel/udel, Hitt. at, Luw. ad-; az-, Palaic ata-, Lat. edō, Oscan edum, Gk. edō, Eng. etan/eat, Gm. essan/essen, ON eta, Goth. itan, Ir. esse/, Thrac. esko-, Toch. /yesti
*H₁edʰ- sharp Russ. jel', Lith. eglė, Ltv. egle, Lat. ebulus, Gaul. odocos, Old Prussian addle, Gm. attuh/, Polish jodła
*H₁eH₁ter- intestines Gk. ētor/, Ir. inathar/, Lat. uterus, ON ǽðr, Eng. ǣ

dder/, Gm. ādra/Ader

*H₁eH₂-ter- fire Arm. airel, Ir. áith/áith, Welsh odyn, Skr. atharvan, Av. ātarš, Pers. Āçiyādiya/ādar, Lat. āter, Umbrian atru, Oscan Aadíriis, Serb. vatra
*H₁ei- to go Lith. eiti, Ltv. iet, Old Prussian eit, Russ. idti, Polish iść, Goth. iddja, Eng. ēode/--, Skr. eti, Av. aēiti, Gk. eimi, Lat. ire, Umbrian ier, Oscan eítuns, Kamviri ie, Gaul. eimu, Toch. i/i, Ir. ethaim/, Pers. aitiy/, OCS idǫ

, Luw. i-

*H₁eibʰ- to copulate Gm. eiba/--, Skr. yabhati, Russ. jebat', Illyr. Oibalos, Gk. oiphō/, Polish jebać
*H₁el- elbow Gm. elina/elle, Gk. ōlenē, Arm. volok', Lith. uolektis, Ltv. olekts, Russ. lokot', Skr. ā

i, Welsh elin, Eng. eln/ell, Ir. uilin/uille, Goth. aleina, ON aln, Alb. llërë/llânë, Av. arəθna, Old Prussian woaltis, OCS pakŭtĭ, Polish łokieć, Pers. /āran

*H₁engʷ- gland Alb. angërr, Gk. adēn, Lat. inguen, ON ökkvinn
*H₁epero- boar Lith. Vepriai, Ltv. vepris, Gm. ebur/Eber, Eng. eofor/--, Russ. vepr', Polish wieprz, Skr. vapati, Lat. aper; vepres, Umbrian apruf, Old Prussian Weppren, Thrac. ebros, ON jǫ

furr

*H₁er- goat Arm. oroj/oroč, Lith. ėriukas, Ltv. jērs, Old Prussian eristian, Lat. ariēs, Umbrian erietu, Ir. heirp/earb, Gk. eriphos, Gm. irah/, OCS jarina
*H₁erH₁gʷo- pea Gk. orobos, Ir. orbaind/, Lat. ervum, Gm. arawīz/Erbse, ON ertr
*H₁es- (*H₁ésmi [1ps]) to be OCS jestĭ, Russ. est', Lith. esmi, Ltv. esmu, Old Prussian asmai, Gk. esti, Ir. am/, Skr. asti, Av. asti, Lat. est, Umbrian sent, Oscan súm, Eng. is/is, Arm. ē, Polish jest, Alb. është/âsht, Gm. ist/ist, Goth. ist, ON es, Hitt. asa, Lyc. es, Luw. as, Lyd. e-, Palaic aš-, Toch.

e/ ei, Pers. astiy/ast,

*H₁eu- to dress Av. aoθra, Russ. obut', Polish obuć, Lith. auti, Ltv. aut, Lat. exuo;induo,, Arm. aganum/akanum; aganim/akanim, Old Prussian auclo, Umbrian anovihimu, Ir. fuan/, Welsh gŵn, OCS obujǫ
*H₁euHdʰ-r̥- udder Lith. ūdruoju, Eng. ūder/udder, Gm. ūtir/Euter, ON jūgr, Gk. outhar/, Skr. ūdhar, Lat. ūber, Russ. vimja, Polish wymię
*H₁eus- to burn Alb. ushël, Lith. usnis, Ltv. usna, Lat. ūrō, Gk. heuō/, Gm. eimuria/, Eng. ǣ

merge/ember, ON usli, Skr. o ati,

*H₁ewegʷʰ- to praise Skr. vāghat, Av. raštarəvaġənti, Gk. eukhomai, Arm. gog/kok, Lat. vovēre, Umbrian vufetes
*H₁eǵʰi- hedgehog Russ. ëž, Lith. ežys, Ltv. ezis, Phryg. eksis, Gk. ekhinos, Gm. igil/Igel, Arm. ozni, Eng. igil/--, ON ígul, Osset. wyzyn, Polish jeż, Phryg. eksis, Alb. esh
*H₁eǵʰs out Lat. ex, Gk. eks, Gaul. ex-, Ir. ass/as, Russ. iz, Alb. jashtë, Oscan eh-, Umbrian ehe-, Lith. iž, Ltv. iz, Old Prussian is, Welsh a
*H₁eḱwo- horse Lat. equus, Toch. yuk/yakwe, Gaul. epos, Gk. hippos, Skr. aśva, Av. asva-, Lith. ašva, Old Prussian aswinan, Kamviri ušpa, Eng. eoh/--, Gm. ehwaz/--, Goth. aiƕ

tundi, ON iór, Hitt. aśuwas, Arm. ēš, Welsh ebol, Ir. ech/each, Thrac. esvas, Lyc. esbe-, Phryg. es', Pers. aspa/asb, Osset. jæfs/æfsæ, Venetic ekvon

*H₁nōm-n̥- name Toch. ñom/ñem, Lat. nōmen, Umbrian nome, Eng. nama/name, Gm. namo/Name, ON nafn, Goth. namo, Skr. nāman, Av. nąman, Gk. onoma, OCS imę, Russ. imja, Alb. emër/êmën, Ir. ainm/ainm, Welsh anu, Hitt. lāman, Kamviri nom, Pers. nāma/nām, Arm. anun, Polish imię, Old Prussian emnes
*H₁oH₁s- mouth Skr. ās;o

ha, Av. aosta, Lat. ōs, Lith. uosta, Ltv. osta, Russ. usta, Kamviri âša, Old Prussian austo, Eng. ōr/--, Hitt. aiš, ON oss

*H₁oH₁ḱ-u- quick Gk. ōkupous, Lat. ōcior, Welsh diog, Av. āsu, Skr. āśu, Russ. jastreb, OCS jastrębŭ
*H₁omH₁-so- shoulder Gk. ōmos, Lat. umĕrus, Skr. a

sa, Goth. ams, ON ass, Toch. es/āntse, Arm. us

*H₁oḱtō(u) eight Arm. ut'/ut'/ut'ĕ, Alb. tëte/tetë, Lith. aštuoni, Ltv. astoņi, Gaul. oxtū, Gm. ahto/acht, Eng. eahta/eight, Gk. oktō, Av. ašta, Ir. ocht/ocht, Kashmiri ā.

h, Lyc. aitãta-, Kamviri u , Lat. octō, Oscan uhto, ON átta, Old Prussian astōnjai, Osset. ast/ast, Pers. ašta/hašt, OCS osmĭ, Polish osiem, Russ. vosem', Skr. a a, Toch. okät/okt, Goth. ahtau, Welsh wyth

*H₁reudʰ-ó- red Lat. ruber, Eng. rēad/red, Lith. raudonas, Ltv. ruds, Skr. rudhira, Russ. rdet', Gk. eruthros, Toch. rtär/ratre, Av. raoðita, Goth. rauþs, ON rjóðr, Gm. rōt/rot, Oscan Rufriis, Umbrian rufru, Ir. ruad/ Welsh rhudd, Gaul. Roudos
*H₁reug- to vomit Russ. rygat', Polish rzygać, Lith. riaugėti, Ltv. raugāties, Gk. ereugomai, Lat. ructāre, Eng. rēocan/reek, Gm. rouhhan/rauchen; itruchen/, ON reykja, Pers. /āroġ, Arm. vorcam/vordzam,
*H₁reugʰmen- cream Lith. rūgti, Ltv. raugs, Av. raoġna, Pers. /roġān, ON rjúmi, Eng. rēam/ream, Gm. roum/Rahm
*H₁reus-men- throat Skr. rōmantha, Lat. rūmen, Welsh rhumen, Lith. raumuo, Ltv. raumins
*H₁r̥tḱo- bear Gk. arktos, Lat. ursus, Skr.

k a, Pers. /xers, Arm. arj/arč, Gaul. Artioni, Alb. ari, Kamviri ic, Osset. ærs, Welsh arth, Av. aršam, Hitt. artagga

*H₁égni- fire Skr. agni, Hitt. agniš, Lat. ignis, Lith. ugnis, Ltv. uguns, OCS ognĭ, Polish ogień, Russ. ogon', Alb. enjte
*H₁éH₃g-o- berry Toch. oko/oko, Lith. uoga, Ltv. oga, OCS agoda, Russ. jagoda, Polish jagoda, Goth. akran, ON akarn, Gm. ēker/Ecker, Eng. æcern/acorn, Ir. áirne/, Welsh aeron
*H₁ésH₂r̥- (nom-acc. *H₁ésH₂r̥, gen. *H₁esH₂n-ós) blood Skr. as

k, Old Lat. aser, Ltv. asins, Hitt. ešar, Lyc. esêne-, Luw. ašhar-, Toch. ysār/yasar, Gk. eiar, Arm. ariun

*H₁óH₂wyo- (nom-acc. *H₁óH₂wyom, gen. *H₁óH₂wyo-s) egg Lat. ōvum, Gk. ōion, Russ. jajco, Gm. ei/Ei, Eng. ǣ

g/Cockney, Ir. /ubh, Welsh ŵy, Alb. ve;vo, ON egg, Crimean Gothic ada, Arm. dzu/cu, Pers. /xāyah, OCS ajĭse, Kurd. hék

*H₁ói-no- one Alb. një/nji, Lith. vienas, Ltv. viens, Gaul. oinos, Gm. ein/eins, Eng. ān/one, Gk. oios, Av. aēuua, Ir. óin/aon, Kashmiri akh, Kamviri ev, Oscan uinus, ON einn, Old Prussian aīns, Osset. iu/ieu, Pers. aiva/yek, OCS edinŭ, Polish jeden, Russ. odin, Skr. eka, Lat. ūnus, Umbrian uns, Goth. ains, Welsh un

h₂, a

Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₂ebl-o- apple Lith. obuolys, Ltv. ābols, Eng. æppel/apple, Russ. jabloko, Ir. uball/ubhall, Gm. aphul/Apfel, Polish jabłko, Welsh afal, Old Prussian woble, Skr. abala, ON eple, Gaul. avallo, OCS jabloko
h₂eǵʰ- plough animal Arm. ezn/yez(n)/yez(n), Ir. ag/agh, Welsh ewig, Skr. ahī, Av. azī
*h₂ego- fault, sin Skr. āgas, Gk. agos, Eng. acan/ache
*h₂ekʷ- water Lat. aqua, Russ. Oka, Goth. aha, Gm. aha/Ache, Eng. īg/island, Hitt. akwanzi, Luw. ahw-, Palaic aku-, ON á, Goth. aƕ

a

*h₂ep- water Skr. ap; *h₂p-isk- "fish" Lat. piscis, Ir. íasc/iasc, Goth. fisks, ON fiskr, Eng. fisc/fish, Gm. fisc/Fisch, Russ. peskar', Polish piskorz, Welsh pysgodyn
*h₂egʷs-iH₂- axe Lat. ascia, Eng. æx/axe, Gm. ackis/Axt, Gk. aksinē, ON øx, Goth. aqizi
*h₂egʷʰno- lamb OCS jagnę, Russ. jagnënok, Gk. amnos, Ir. úan/uan, Eng. ēanian/yean, Welsh oen, Lat. agnus, Umbrian habina, Polish jagnię
*h₂eig- sick Lat. aeger, Toch. /aikare, ON eikenn, Lith. ingas, Ltv. angus, OCS jęsa, Russ. jaga, Polish jędza, Eng. inca/, Arm. yekro/yegro
*h₂eim- copy Hitt.

imma, Lat. aemulus; imāgō

*h₂eiti- part Av. aēta, Oscan aeteis, Gk. aitios, Ir. áes/aois, Welsh oes
*h₂eiw- vital force Skr. āyu, Lat. aevum, Av. āyū, Toch. āym/, Eng. æfre/ever, Gm. īo/je; êwig/ewig, Goth. aiws, ON ei, Gk. aiōn, Alb. eshë
*h₂eiǵ- goat Skr. e

a, Av. izaēna, Arm. aic/aidz, Gk. aiks

*h₂eiǵ- oak Lith. ąžuolas, Lat. aesculus, Gk. krataigos/, ON eik, Eng. āc/oak, Gm. eihha/Eiche
*h₂eiḱ- spear/pike Gk. aiklos/, Lat. īcō, Old Prussian aysmis, OCS igla, Polish igła, Av. išarə, Lith. iešmas, Ltv. iesms, ON eigin, Russ. igla
*h₂eiḱ- to be master of, to possess Eng. āgan/ought, Goth. aigan, Gm. eigan/eigen, ON eiga, Skr. ī

e, Av. īšti

*h₂ek-mon- stone Gk. akmōn, Lith. akmuo, Ltv. akmens, Skr. aśman, Av. asman, Russ. kamen', Eng. hamer/hammer, Polish kamień, ON hamarr, Hitt. aku, Pers. asman/, Gaul. acaunum, Gm. hamar/Hammer
*h₂el-yó- *H₂el-nó- other Lat. alius, Eng. elles/else, Skr. ara

a, Gk. allos, Oscan allo, Toch. ālak/allek, Arm. ayl, Gaul. alla, Ir. aile/eile, Welsh ail, Goth. alijs, Gm. elilenti/elend, ON elligar, Lyd. aλaś

*h₂elbʰ-it- barley Alb. elb, Gk. alphi/
*h₂elbʰó- white Lat. albus, Umbrian alfu, Hitt. alpas, Gm. Alps, Welsh elfydd, Russ. lebed', Eng. ælf/elf, Gk. alphos, Lyc. alb-, ON alfr
*h₂elud- beer Lith. alus, Ltv. alus, Lat. alūmen, Eng. ealu/ale, Gk. aludoimo/, ON ǫ

l, Old Prussian alu, OCS olŭ

*H₂en- ancestor Gk. annis/anōn, Lat. anus, Illyr. ana, Gm. ano/ahn, Lith. anyta, Hitt. hannas, Arm. han, Russ. vnuk, Old Prussian ane
*H₂en- spirit Skr. ānas, Goth. uzanan; andi, Ir. anál/anál, Gk. anemos, Lat. animus, OCS vonja, Russ. von', Welsh anysbryd, ON anda; ǫ

nd, Eng. eðian/--; ōþian/--, Welsh eneid, Av. åntya, Lith. anuoti, Arm. hov, Alb. ajë/âj, Oscan anamum, Toch. āñcäm/āñme

*H₂engwi- eel Lat. Anguilla, Lith. ungurys, Gm. angar/Engerling, Russ. ugor', Gk. egkhelus, Old Prussian angurgis
*H₂enH₁-ti- duck Lat. anas, Lith. antis, Skr. ātis, Russ. utie, Gm. anut/Ente, Eng. ened/--, ON ǫ

nd, Old Prussian antis, Gk. nēssa/

*H₂enk- angle Gm. ango/, Osset. ængur, Skr. a

kas, Lat. ancus, Lith. anka, Ltv. āķis, Gk. agkōn, Russ. ugol, ON angi, Av. a kupəsəmna, Welsh anghad, Ir. ēcath/, Hitt. hink

*H₂enǵʰ- narrow Gk. ankhō/, Skr. a

hu, Av. ąza hē, Russ. uzkij, Goth. aggwus, ON aungr, Arm. anjuk/ančug, Gm. engi/eng, Hitt. hamenk, OCS ǫ zŭkŭ, Polish wąski, Lith. ankšta, Toch. e ts/entse, Eng. enge/, Welsh ehang, Ir. /cumung

*H₂ep- river, lake Hitt.

ap(a), Palaic apnas, Luw. apinni, Ltv. upe, Lith. upė, Old Prussian ape, Eng. ōfer/, Gm. /Ufer, Skr. āp, Av. afš, Lat. amnis, Toch. āp/āp

*H₂ep- to reach Av. apayeiti, Lat. apex, Skr. āptas, Gk. apto, Arm. unim, Hitt. apanzi, Toch. oppäśśi/, Polish opaść
*H₂eps-eH₂- aspen Eng. æspe/aspen, Gm. aspa/Espe, ON ǫ

sp, Lith. epušė, Ltv. apse, Old Prussian abse, Gk. aspris/

*H₂er- nut Russ. orex, Alb. arrë, Gk. arna, Polish orzech
*H₂erg- to lock Gk. arkeō, Lat. arcēre, Arm. argel/arkel, Goth. arka, Old Prussian arkan, Polish arkan, Hitt.

ark-, Toch. --/ārk, Oscan trííbarakavúm, Lith. raktas; užrakinti

*H₂erH₁- to plow Toch. āre/āre, Lat. arō, Gk. arotēr, Lith. arti, Ltv. art, OCS orati, Russ. orat', Arm. araur, Ir. airim/, Polish orać, Goth. arjan, Eng. erian/--, ON arðr, Welsh arddu, Old Prussian artoys, Gm. erien/
*H₂erǵó-, *H₂erǵí- white, shining Gk. arguros, Lat. arguō, Hitt.

arkiš, Toch. ārki/arkwi, Eng. eorcnanstān/--, Gk. erchan/--, Skr. arjuna, Ir. argat/airgead, Av. arəzah, Welsh ariant, Oscan aragetud, Arm. arcat'/ardzat', Phryg. arg, Thrac. arzas, Gaul. Argentoratum, Goth. unairkns

*H₂eu- to help Skr. avati, Lat. aveō, Av. avaiti, Arm. aviun, Gaul. Avicantus, Goth. ewyll, Gk. -aones, Lith. aušti, Ltv. aust, Ir. con ói/, Toch. olar/aulāre, ON auð, Eng. īþe/, Gm. ōdmuoti/
*H₂eug- to glance Gk. augē, Alb. agon, Russ. jug, OCS jugŭ
*H₂eug- to increase Lith. augti, Ltv. augt, Lat. auctis, Gk. auksōn, Skr. ugra, Toch. ok/auk, Eng. eacan/eke, Gm. wahsan/wachsen; ouh/auch, ON auka, Goth. aukan, Old Prussian auginnons, Umbrian uhtur
*H₂euH₂o- *H₂éuH₂-yo- paternal grandfather, maternal uncle Lat. avus ;avunculus, Gaul. avontīr, Gk. aia, Lith. avynas, Old Prussian awis, Welsh ewythr, Arm. hav, Eng. ēam/--, Ir. aue/ó, Goth. awó, Gm. ōheim/Oheim, OCS uy, Russ. uj, Polish wuj, Hitt. huhhas
*H₂eus- dawn Lat. aurōra, Lith. aušra, Ltv. ausma, Gm. ōstra/Osten, Skr. u

ās, Russ. utro, Eng. ēast/east, Gk. hēos, ON austr, Av. ušastara, Ir. fáir/, Welsh gwawr

*H₂ewi- (nom. *H₂ewi-s, gen. *H₂wei-s) bird Lat. avis, Av. vīš, Skr. vis, Arm. hav, Welsh hwyad, Gk. aetos, Lith. višta, Ltv. vista, Umbrian avif, Ir. /aoi
*H₂eǵ- goat Skr. aja, Pers. /azg, Lith. ožys, Ltv. āzis, Ir. ag/agh, OCS jazno, Russ. jaz', Old Prussian wosux, Alb. dhi
*H₂eǵʰero- lake Lith. ežeras, Ltv. ezers, Russ. ozero, Illyr. oseriates, Gk. Akherōn, OCS jezero, Polish jezioro, Old Prussian assaran
*H₂eḱ- sharp Gk. akros, Lat. ācer, Skr. aśris, OCS ostrŭ, Russ. ost'; ostryj, Ir. aicher/, Lith. aštrus, Ltv. asmens, Goth. ahs, Pers. /ās, Gaul. Akrotalus, Welsh eithiw, Oscan akrid, Umbrian peracri, Arm. asełn/aseġ/aseġ, Alb. athët, Toch. āk/āke, Eng. ecg/edge, ON egg, Gm. egga/Ecke, Polish ostry, XMK akrounoi
*H₂ner- power Lat. neriōsus, Welsh nerth, Alb. njer, Skr. nar, Luw. anarummi, Lyd. nãrś, Lith. noras, Russ. nrav, Gaul. Nertobriga, Arm. air, Gk. anēr, Oscan ner, Umbrian nerf, Ir. nert/, Phryg. anar
*H₂nos- nose Lat. nasus, Skr. nasa, OCS nasu, Russ. nos, Lith. nosis, Ltv. nāss, Eng. nosu/nose, Av. nah, Gm. nasa/Nase, Kamviri nâsu

, Old Prussian nazy, Pers. nāham/, ON nös

*H₂ous- ear Lat. auris, Gk. ous, Skr. usi, OCS ucho, Russ. uši, Goth. auso, Lith. ausis, Ltv. auss, Gaul. ausia-, Alb. vesh, Gm. ōra/Ohr, Ir. au/, Av. usi, Pers. gaušā/guš, Eng. éare/ear, ON eyra, Arm. unkn/akanj/aganč, Old Prussian āusins. See also Hausos.
*H₂s-tér- star Lat. stella, Gk. astēr, Gm. sterro/Stern, Eng. steorra/star, ON stjarna, Goth. stairno, Arm. astł/astġ/asdġ, Skr. tāras;st

bhis, Welsh seren, Toch. śre/śćirye, Kamviri âšto, Pers. /setāre, Osset. sthaly/, Hitt. šittar, Kurd. stérk/estére

*H₂u-per over Lat. super, Gk. huper, Skr. upari, Av. upairi, Eng. ofer/over, Gm. ubar/über, Goth. ufarō, ON yfir, Gaul. Uertragus, Ir. for/for, Pers. upariy/bar, Welsh gwarthaf, Oscan supruis, Umbrian super, Arm. ver, Av. upairi
*H₂wap- bad, evil Hitt.

uwapp, Eng. yfel/evil, Gm. ubil/Übel, Goth. ubils

*H₂yuH₁ení- young OCS junu, Russ. junyj, Skr. yuvan, Gaul. Jovincillus, Lith. jaunas, Ltv. jauns, Eng. geong/young, Av. yavan, Lat. juvĕnis, Umbrian iuengar , Gm. jung/jung, Welsh ieuanc, ON ungr, Goth. juggs, Welsh ieuanc, Ir. óc/óg, Pers. /javān
*H₂éd-es- cereal Hitt. hattar, Lat. ador, Gm. azzic/, Goth. atisk, Toch. āti/atiyo, Av. āðūfrāðana, Arm. hat/had
*H₂ég-ro- field Skr. ajra, Gk. agros, Lat. ager, Umbrian ager, Goth. akrs, Eng. æcer/acre, Arm. art/ard, Gm. achar/Acker, ON akr
*H₂ént-i front Hitt.

anta, Luw. hantili, Lyc. xñtawata, Lith. ant, Eng. ende/end, Gm. endi/Ende, Goth. and, ON endr, Gk. anti, Ir. étan/, Lat. antiae, Oscan ant, Toch. ānt/ānte

*H₂érkʷo- bow Lat. arcus, Goth. arƕ

azna, Eng. arwe/arrow, Gk. arkeuthos, Russ. rakita, Polish rakieta, Ltv. ērkšķis, ON ǫ rvar, Umbrian arçlataf

*H₂éwiǵ- oats Lat. avēna, Lith. aviža, Ltv. auza, Russ. ovës, Polish owies, Gk. aigilōps/, Old Prussian wyse, OCS ovĭsŭ
*H₂éy-es- (nom. H₂eyos, gen. H₂eyesos) metal Skr. ayas, Lat. aes, Umbrian ahesnes, Gm. ēr/Erz, Eng. ār/ore, Av. aya

h, Goth. aiz, ON eir, Gaul. Isarnodori, Ir. iarn/iarann, Welsh haearn, Pers. /āhan

*H₂éǵʰ-r/n̥- day Skr. ahar, Av. azan
*H₂ó-sd-o- branch Arm. ost/vost/vosd, Gk. ozos, Eng. ōst, Gm. ast/Ast, Goth. asts, Hitt.

ašda-

h₃, o

Root Meaning Derivatives
*H₃el-no- alder Lat. alnus, Lith. alksnis, Ltv. elksnis, Russ. olxa, XMK aliza, ON alr, Gm. elira/Erle, Eng. alor/alder, Old Prussian aliskande, Gaul. alisa, Hitt. alanzan, Polish olcha
*H₃em- bitter Gk. ōmos, Lat. amārus, Arm. hum, Skr. amla, Eng. ampre/, ON apr, Ltv. amols, Alb. ëmblë, XMK abro-
*H₃engʷ- to anoint Skr. anakti, Arm. aucanem/audzanem, Ir. /imb, Lat. unguō, Umbrian umtu, Old Prussian anctan, Gm. ancho/, Welsh ymenyn
*H₃erbʰo- work Lat. orbus, Arm. orb/orp, Ir. orbe/, Skr. arbha, Hitt. arpa, Gk. orphanos, Gm. arbeit/Arbeit, Eng. earfoð/--, OCS rabŭ, Polish robota, Russ. rebënok, Gaul. Orbius, Goth. arbi, ON arfr, Lith. irbu
*H₃ers- to protrude Gk. oura, Arm. or, Hitt. arras, Eng. ears/arse, Ir. err/earr, Gm. ars/Arsch, ON ars
*H₃erǵʰi- testicle Gk. orkhēs, Arm. ordzik'/orcik', Ir. uirge/, Lith. aržilas, Ltv. ērzelis, Av. ərəzi, Alb. herdhe
*H₃eyó- multicolored, reddish Lith. ieva, Ltv. ieva, Eng. īw/yew, Gm. īwa/Eibe, ON ýr, Gk. oiē, Gaul. ivo, Ir. éo/eó, Welsh iwen, Russ. iva
*H₃nobʰ- navel Lat. umbilīcus, Skr. nabhya, Av. nāba, Ltv. naba, Gm. nabalo/Nabel, Eng. nafela/navel, ON nafli, Gk. omphalos, Ir. imbliu/imleacán, Kashmiri naf, Old Prussian nabis, Pers. /nāf
*H₃nógʰ-o- /